This is the refutation of weak ahadith in the book "Beseeching for Help" (Istighāthah) by Dr Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri, Chapter 3 Justification of Istighāthah after Death, I will not quote rulings deduced by Dr Qadri due to their length, when hadith is weak then there is no reason to deduce ruling from a particular hadith, that also without quoting any Salaf and Muhaddith.
Tahir ul Qadri quoted
Ibn-ul-Fir āsī narrates that Firāsī said to the Prophet: 'O Messenger of Allāh! Shall I beg you for something?' He r eplied: No, and if you can't help begging, then you should beseech the pious and the righteous ( for help).[ Beseeching for Help" (Istighāthah) page 69]
a) Above hadeeth is weak This is extract from Daeef Abu Dawud Shaykh al-Albani
Ibn al Farasi and Muslim bin Makshi are not known
1. Ibn al Farasi Ibn e Hajar asqalani said in at-Taqreeb ابن الفراسي عن النبي - صلى الله عليه وسلم - وقيل عن أبيه عن النبي - صلى الله عليه وسلم - لا يعرف اسمه Ibn al Farisi from Prophet peace be upon him, he also say From my father from Prophet peace beupon him I don't know his name
Ibn hajar said: No one narrates from him except Muslim bin Makshi[Tahdeeb at tahdeeb]
2. Muslim bin Makshi
Imam ad-Dahabee said: No one narrated from him except Bakr bin sawadah [Meezan al aitedaal] [see Daeef abu dawood hadeeth no: 292]
b) How on earth Qadri is using this hadeeth on asking help from dead? Muhadditheen (Imam Abu Dawood and Nisai) mentioned this hadeeth in Kitab az-Zakat. Secondly, Prophet peace be upon him rejected in the first place, only in case of necessity he allowed; surely Prophet peace be upon him said regarding alive people, because no one can ask zaka'ah from dead. If yes then for how many times Qadri issued the fatwa of asking Zaka'ah from dead people?
Tahir ul Qadri quoted from Musnad al-Bazzar:
Your deeds are presented to me. I f they are good, I express my gratitude to Allāh, and if the deeds are not good, then I pray to Allāh for your forgiveness[page 75 ibid]
1. Critique on Chain
a) Hafiz al-Bazzar himself said after quoting the hadeeth
وهذا الحديث آخره لا نعلمه يروى عن عبد الله إلا من هذا الوجه بهذا الإسناد.
b) Hafiz Ibne Kathir endorsed the wordings of Hafiz al-Bazzar in Al Bidaya wal Nihaya 5/275
Note: These people need mutwatir hadeeth to prove their false creed, above hadith is weak leave a side mutwatir.
c) Hafiz al 'Iraqee, shaykh of Haythamee said: " Men are men of Saheeh, except that Abdel Majeed ibn Abi Ruwad although Muslim narrated from him, and Ibn ma'een and Nassai declared him thiqqah, other declared him weak" Takhreej Al Ihya ( 4/128)
d) Shaykh Zubair Ali Zai said: This chain is weak because of three reasons
1- Sufiyan at-Thawri is Mudallis and this narration is from (AN) 2- Abdel Majeed ibn Abi Ruwad is Mudallis and this narration is from (AN) see al Fath-ul Mubeen fe tahqeeq Tabqaat ul Mudalliseen 3/82 3- Abdel Majeed is Weak according to Majority see al Fath ul Mobeen fe tahqeeq Tabqaat ul Mudalliseen page 55 and Tohfa tul Aqwiya fe tahqeeq Duafa al Bukhari page 242[In the tahqeeq of Fadal Salat an Nabi by Imam Ismaieel bin Ishaq al Qadhi page 69]
2.. Critique on text
a) Shaykh Al-Albani said: The first part : " Allah has (appointed) angels wandering on earth, they bring me the salam of my Ummah" has been transmitted by Nassai ( 1/189) from many asaneed from Sufyan Thawree from Abdallah ibn Saib, and from Al A'mash in Mu'jam Kabeer of Tabaranee ( 3/81/2) , Akhbar Asbahan of Abu Nu'aym ( 2/205) and Ibn Asakir ( 9/189/2)
Shaykh Albani said : " The agreement of a Jama'at of thiqah on this narration from Sufyan without mention of end of hadeeth " My life...", and A'mash following him in that shows for me the Shuzooz of this addition ( meaning the addition is shaadh), because Abdel Majeed ibn Abdel Azeez is alone in reporting it, and how not when he his mutakalam fihi ( talked about) because of his memory, despite his being from narrators of Muslim, a Jama'at has declared him thiqqah, and other have declared him weak, and some mention reason ( of weakening). Khalili said : " He is Thiqqah, but he makes mistakes in Ahadeeth" Nassai said : " He is not Qawee, his hadeeth are written" Ibn Abdil Barr said : "He narrated from Malik Ahadeeth in which he made mistakes" Ibn Hibban said in " Al Majroohin" ( 2/152) : " Munkarul Hadeeth Jidan, he mixes akhbar, he narrates manakeer from famous ( people), and he deserves to be abandoned"I say : this is why Hafiz said in Taqreeb : " Sadooq he makes mistakes"(end quote)
Secondly Hafiz Ibn Katheer says: " الحكم بالصحة أو الحسن على الإسناد لا يلزم منه الحكم بذلك على المتن ، إذ قد يكون شاذاً أو معللاً " The fact that the isnaad is deemed to be saheeh or hasan does not necessarily mean that the same applies to the text, because it may be shaadhdh (odd) or mu'allal (faulty). Ikhtisaar 'Uloom al-Hadeeth (p. 43).
Comment: It is already proven above that the text is odd
5. The hadith is not proving any kind of istegatha
One of the sisters from Multaqa forum replied "Lets say for the sake of argument that the hadith is sound, it is still not evidence for istighathat because it says that our deeds are PRESENTED to them, and according to the type of deed, they make duaa for us, it says nothing about us making duaa to them, asking them for forgiveness or help ....etc. There is no mention of istighatha in those narrations at all."(end quote from multaqa)
So In short
1. Sufiyan is mudallis narrating from (an) 2. Abdul Majeed is mudallis and had very weak memory. Imam Muslim brought him only in mutab'iat not for Ihtijaj. 3. Text of the hadith is very odd(Shadh) and against authentic ahadith. 4. If the chain is authentic that does not mean hadith is authentic plus this hadith is not mutwatir. 5. Hadith has nothing to do with Istegatha
Ibn-ul-Qayyim has written an exhaustive book on "the soul" which is the most authentic book on this subject. At one place he has reported from 'Abdullāh bin Mubārak that Abū Ayyūb al-Ansār ī said: The deeds of the living are presented to the dead. If they see virtuous (deeds), they are pleased and rejoiced, and if they see ( evil) deeds, they say: 'O Allāh! Return them.'[page 80 Ibid]
This is the chain quoted by Ibn al Qayyim
قال عبد الله بن المبارك حدثنى ثور بن يزيد عن ابراهيم عن أبى أيوب قال تعرض أعمال الأحياء على الموتى فإذا رأوا حسنا فرحوا واستبشروا وإن رأوا سوءا قالوا اللهم راجع به Abdullah bin Mubarak said Narrated to us Thawr bin Yazeed from Ibraheem from Abu Ayyub al Ansaree....(and the narration)
a) Ibraheem an-Nakhee is Mudallis [Tabqat ul Mudalliseen 2/35], he is narrating from (an), b)secondly, there is discontinuity between him and Abu Ayyub Al-Ansaree, Because Ibraheem was born in 47 h and Abu ayyub al Ansaree died in 55 h, meaning Ibraheem was only 8 years old when Abu Ayyub al Ansaree died. how can we accept this hadith?
There is another rout of this narration in Kitab az-Zuhud of Abdullah bin Mubarak, It can clear the saying of Abu Ayyub al-Ansaree May Allah be pleased with him
443 أخبركم أبو عمر بن حيوية وأبو بكر الوراق قالا أخبرنا يحيى قال حدثنا الحسين قال أخبرنا ابن المبارك قال أخبرنا ثور بن يزيد عن أبي رهم السماعي عن أبي أيوب الأنصاري قال إذا قبضت نفس العبد تلقاه أهل الرحمة من عباد الله كما يلقون البشير في الدنيا فيقبلون عليه ليسألوه فيقول بعضهم لبعض أنظروا أخاكم حتى يستريح فإنه كان في كرب فيقبلون عليه فيسألونه ما فعل فلان ما فعلت فلانة هل تزوجت فإذا سألوا عن الرجل قد مات قبله قال لهم إنه قد هلك فيقولون إنا لله وإنا إليه راجعون ذهب به إلى أمه الهاوية فبئست الأم وبئست المربية قال فيعرض عليهم أعمالهم فإذا رأوا حسنا فرحوا واستبشروا وقالوا هذه نعمتك على عبدك فأتمها وإن رأوا سوء قالوا اللهم راجع بعبدك
Translation: Abu Ayyub al-Ansari said: When a disbelieving servant's souls is taken (at death) (the souls of) Allah's servants who have been granted mercy receive him (in heaven) as (eagerly as) a carrier of glad tidings is received in the first life. They come to him and ask questions : But some of them say : give your brother some time to rest , because he was in grief ( in the first life)
Then (after a while) they gather around him and ask him, What did so and so man do ? Did she get married If they ask him about a man who had died before him and he tells them "He already died " , they say ."To Allah we belong and unto Him we will return (after Resurrection)!He must have gone to his mother , the (Fire) abyss. That is indeed the worst mother and the worst caretaker."
He also tells them about the actions (of their living acquintances) .If they find them goodn (for an individual) they say : O Allah , this is Your favor upon your servant , so complete it for him (until death)." And if they find them bad , they say ,"O Allah bring Your servant bak (to the right) ."
[Kitab az-Zuhud of Imam Abdullah bin Mubarak hadeeth no: 443, Authenticated by Shaykh AL-AlBani in Silsilah as-Saheeha no: 2758]
Comment: After reading this clear text it is clear that what Abu Ayyub al-Ansaree is saying. This was actually a discussion between the new soul who recently met the other good souls and all this was a part of the conversation between them at that point of time, Now how on earth such things can be taken as a proof for Istegatha from dead saints for your needs ?
Secondly, Ibn al-Qayyim wrote in detail regarding the deeds presented to dead. Ibn al-Qayyim said:
When someone who is alive intercedes for a dead person who is being punished, his punishment is halted, even if only for a time. When he intercedes for a person enjoying bliss, that person is raised a degree [Kitab Al Ruh abridged english translation page 32 with commentary of Layla Mabrouk]
Then he mentioned some of the dreams and ahadeeth regarding reaching prayers of the believers to their loved ones. We should understand this issue from Ibn al-Qayyim, he said in same book: وأما استدلالكم بقوله صلى الله عليه وسلم " إذا مات العبد انقطع عمله " : فاستدلال ساقط فإنه صلى الله عليه وسلم لم يقل ( انقطع انتفاعه ) ، وإنما أخبر عن انقطاع عمله ، وأما عمل غيره : فهو لعامله ، فان وهبه له : وصل إليه ثواب عمل العامل لا ثواب عمله هو ، فالمنقطع شيء والواصل إليه شيء آخر ، وكذلك الحديث الآخر وهو قوله " إن مما يلحق الميت من حسناته وعمله " : فلا ينفي أن يلحقه غير ذلك من عمل غيره وحسناته . "When you use this hadeeth 'When the son of Adam dies, his deeds come to an end', you are misquoting it. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not say, 'He no longer benefits at all'; what he said is that deeds of the individual come to an end. As far as the deeds of others are concerned, the (reward) is for the one who does them, and if he gives that to him, the reward of the one who did that reaches him, not the reward of his own deeds. What comes to an end is one thing, and what reaches him is something else. The same applies to another hadeeth, which is: 'What reaches the deceased is his own hasanaat and deeds" – which does not rule out the fact that other things, the good deeds and hasanaat of others, may also reach him." [Kitab al-Ruh pages 129]
Now this is clear what Ibn al-Qayyim tried to prove and what Tahir ul Qadri is deducing in his book.
Tahir ul Qadri quoted
"'Ibād bin 'Ibād called on I br āhīm bin Sālih and at that time Ibrāhīm bin Sālih was the r uler of Palestine. 'Ibād bin 'Ibād said to him: give me some advice. Ibrāh m bin Sālih said: What should I advise you? May God make you a pious man! I have received the news that the deeds of the living are presented to their dead relatives. Now you just reflect on your deeds which are presented to the Messenger of Allāh .After r elating this, I brāh īm bin Sālih cried so bitterly that his beard became wet."
This is not Quran nor hadith, this is not the saying of any Companion. This is totally against Quran,
a) Allah says in Surah al Hajj Ayah 76 "He knows what is [presently] before them and what will be after them. And to Allah will be returned [all] matters."
b) Allah says in Surah al Baqrah ayah 210 " They do not wait aught but that Allah should come to them in the shadows of the clouds along with the angels, and the matter has (already) been decided; and (all) matters are returned to Allah."
c) Allah says in Surah Al-e-Imran Ayah 109 "And whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth is Allah's; and to Allah all things return"
d) Allah says in Surah al-Hadeed ayah 5 "His is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth; and to Allah are (all) affairs returned".
Comment: Allah is very clear in Qur`an, one can not quote saying of any other later scholar against Qur`an and Sunnah.
If Tahir ul Qadri is trying to prove from Ibn al-Qaayim that he allowed asking help from dead then this is his grave mistake becauseIbn al-Qayyim said:
ففي هذه القصة ما فعله المهاجرون والأنصار رضي الله عنهم من تعمية قبره لئلا يفتتن به ، ولم يبرزوه للدعاء عنده والتبرك به ، ولو ظفر به المتأخرون لجالدوا عليه بالسيف ولعبدوه من دون الله In this story the Muhajiroun and Ansaar RadhiAllah anhum hide his (Daniel's Peace be upon him) grave in order to prevent the people from getting more fascinated by him; to prevent them from supplicating for him or seeking his blessings. But if the body of that man was found by those who came after those early pious Muslims, they would fight one another and they would even worship him besides Allah. [Hadiya tul Mustafeed Commentary of Kitab At Tawheed page 226 of English Translation]
He said while discussing forms of shirk
ومن أنواعه ؛ طلب الحوائج من الموتى والاستغاثة بهم والتوجه إليهم ، وهذا أصل شرك العالم ، فإن الميت قد انقطع عمله وهو لا يملك لنفسه ضراً ولا نفعا
"From the forms (of Shirk): Requesting the dead for needs, seeking their aid and turning to them. This is the basis for Shirk in the world. This is because the actions of the dead have ceased. He is not able to harm or benefit himself, let alone the one who seeks his aid, or asks him to fulfil his need, or asks him to intercede for him with Allah [Madarij al-Salikin (1/332)]
Comment: These quotes are clearly against the creed of Tahir ul Qadri.