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Sunday, December 6, 2009

Method of Offering Salah and its Proofs according to the Hanafi Fiqh (Updated Twice) (To be Updated Soon)

A lot of the narrations mentioned here are actually weak. Inshallah, I will soon post a reviewed method of Salah which is closer to the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (may peace and blessings be upon him). If you are in a hurry, please click the Contact Us button at the top and email us!


(Note: Updated part has been made bold and italicised)

As I mentioned in one of my previous posts that I would publish a post about the Hanafi method of salah, I’ve compiled the various practices of the Hanafi fiqh along with their proofs and it is as follows.
Note that I have chosen to explain the proofs of Hanafi method of Salah because it is the most attacked by people due to its unique practices and also because it has the greatest number of followers.




Manner of standing in the rows of the jama`ah
It is established from several ahadith that the row should be absolutely straight and no gaps should be left between the worshippers. However, some people insist on spreading their feet and standing in such a manner that their ankles touch the ankles of their neighbour. What is the reality of standing in this fashion?

Those who stand in this way base their practice upon a hadith narrated by Nu’maan bin Basheer (radhiallahu anhu). He says: "Once Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) faced us and said: "Straighten your rows". He repeated this thrice. He then said: "By Allah, you must most certainly straighten your rows or else Allah Ta’ala will disunite your hearts". Hazrat Nu’maan bin Basheer (radhiallahu anhu) says: "I then saw the people joining together their shoulders and ankles". [Abu Dawood, Sahih ibn Khuzaima]

The concluding statement of Hazrat Nu’maan (radhiallahu anhu) is also reported in Sahih Bukhari.

However, upon analysing this hadith, several points come to light:

Firstly, Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) never commanded the joining of the ankles. No hadith has yet been found wherein Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) himself instructed the Sahaaba (radhiallahu anhu) to join their ankles. The Sahaaba (radhiallahu anhu) had themselves adopted this manner in order to fulfil the command of straightening the saff. Secondly, this hadith clearly mentions that Nu’maan bin Basheer (radhiallahu anhu) saw the Sahaaba (radhiallahu anhu) doing this PRIOR to the commencement of the salah. There is no mention of this position being maintained even after the salah had commenced.
Therefore we find that great muhadditheen such as Hafiz ibn Hajar (R.A.) and Allama Shawkani (R.A.) have regarded this as an extreme measure which was occasionally adopted by the Sahaaba (radhiallahu anhu) to ensure that the row is straight.
In fact, a hadith of Hazrat Anas (radhiallahu anhu) makes it absolutely clear that this practice was merely a measure adopted BEFORE the salah to ensure the straightening of the row. He says: "If I had to do that (join the ankles) with anyone of them (the tabi’een) today, they would run like wild mules". [Fath al-Bari, vol.2, pg.176]
This simply means that the taabi’een severely disliked that anybody should join their ankles with them. Several points are understood from this:
Firstly, Hazrat Anas (radhiallahu anhu) had stopped doing this completely. Had this been a sunnah and not just a manner of ensuring that the saff was straight, it is impossible that Hazrat Anas (radhiallahu anhu) would have left it out merely upon somebody disliking it.
Secondly, the taabi’een would never have disliked it if they had observed many of the Sahaba (radhiallahu anhum) continuously practicing upon this. It was only due to the fact that they had not generally observed the Sahaba (radhiallahu anhum) adopting this procedure that they disliked it. Hence this makes it crystal clear that the Sahaba (radhiallahu anhum) had only occasionally adopted this practice to ensure the straightening of the saff. It was not a sunnah in itself, otherwise they would never have left it out.
It has already been made clear that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) never himself instructed the joining of the ankles, nor is there any mention of the Sahaba (radhiallahu anhum) having maintained this position even IN salah. However, if for a moment we do accept that this position must be adopted during the course of the salah as well, the question is: In which posture of salah must this position be maintained? Must it be maintained during qiyam, ruku, sajdah and qada or in only some of these postures? If one says that the ankles should be joined only in the qiyam posture, on what basis were the other postures excluded? If it is argued that it is difficult to do so in ruku and sajdah, the same could be said for qiyam, since to stand with one’s feet spread apart is naturally awkward and hence it presents a certain amount of difficulty and uneasiness for many people.
In short, this practice is not established as a sunnah of salah. It was merely adopted initially by the Sahaba (radiallahu anhum) BEFORE the commencement of salah to ensure that the rows are straight.
Abul Qaasim Jadli (rahmatullah alayh) said :I heard Nu’maan Bin Basheer (radhiyallahu anhu) say: ‘Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) turned towards the people (the musallis) and say three times: ‘By Allah! Most certainly, you should straighten your sufoof otherwise Allah will create discord in your hearts.’ Thereafter I saw that a man would attach his shoulder to the shoulder of his companion (the one standing alongside), his knee to the knee of his companion and his ankle to the ankle of his companion. (Bukhari & Abu Dawood)
If we take the literal meaning of this hadith which a few people take , then we have to join our knee with the knee of the person standing next to us in suhoof, which is PRACTICALLY IMPOSSIBLE if the two person are of different height, because the height of knee from ground will be different for two person of different height.
These people who take literal meaning fail to answer to this. In the endeavour to sustain the practice of stretching the legs wide open while performing Salaat, some of the people have gone to the extreme of adopting this ugly stance even when performing Salaat alone.
These people claim that it is Sunnah to stretch the legs wide apart and for a musalli’s toes to touch the toes of the musalli standing alongside him in the saff. This ludicrous position is imposed by them on even women who are obliged to stand with their legs wide open. What an ugly, miserable and immodest stance for a woman to adopt? A woman is an object of concealment according to the statement of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). When she has to stretch her legs wide open, she adopts the stance of lewd and shameless women. Throughout Salaat, a woman’s postures are to be constricted -- made small and drawn in, not asserted like a man asserts and expresses his actions during Salaat.
Hadhrat Anas (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated that Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: Join your sufoof and draw close among yourselves and line up with the necks. Reported by Abu Dawood and Nisai. Authenticated by Ibn Hibbaan. (Bulooghul Maraam)
This hadeeth tells us to line with necks and not touch necks. Even if the hadith tells us to LINE NECK ( AND NOT TOUCH) how would these people explain this that if two brothers of different height are standing next to each other in a line during salah then their NECK WOULD NOT be in a straight line, rather the neck of the shorter person will be near the chest of the taller person, making necks in zig zag path rather than a straight line!
It is for this reason that the title of a chapter in Sahih al-Bukhari ‘Chapter on the Joining of the Shoulders and Feet Together Whilst Forming the Rows’ has been classified by Hafiz Ibn Hajar to be based on exaggeration.
He writes in his commentary Fath al-Bari,
[Imam Bukhari’s] reason for choosing this specific title is to exaggerate (mubalagha) the importance of straightening the rows and filling the gaps in between. (Fath al-Bari2:247).
This means that the narration is not to be taken literally. Imam Shawkani, who is constantly referred to by those who prefer not to follow a school of thought in Islamic jurisprudence, has not taken it for its literal interpretation either. He writes in his bookNayl al-awtar:
[The statement of the Companion] means, place the parts of the body [shoulders, etc.] in line with each other, so that the shoulder of each person performing prayer is in level with the shoulder of the next person. This way everyone’s shoulders, knees and feet will be in a single straight line.
In clear words, this indicates that the real reason for joining the shoulders and other parts, was to straighten the rows, not that the joining itself is an obligatory act.
Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhuma) would not spread (widely) his feet nor would the one foot touch the other, but between this there would be neither much closeness nor much distance.
The rulings of the Four Mathabs in this regard are as follows.
1. According to the Hanbali Mathhab there should be a ‘small’ gap between the feet of the musalli.
2. According to the Maliki Mathhab, the distance should be moderate, neither together nor so wide apart which is considered repugnant.
3. According to the Shaafi Mathhab, the gap between the feet should be one hand. It is Makrooh to spread the feet wider than this.
4. According to the Hanafi Mathhab, the distance between the feet should be four fingers. This is the Sunnah and the Way of the Salf-e-Saaliheen.

Masnoon Method Of Iqaamah

What is Iqaamah?

Making call for the commencement of prayer in which the words of Azaan are repeated causing the believers to stand in rows behind the Imaam, is called Iqaamah or Takbeer.
What is the difference between Azaan and Iqaamah?
The difference between Azaan and Iqaamah is that while making Azaan one stands on a high or an elevated place outside the precinct of mosque and puts his index fingers into the ears while Iqaamah is made in mosque in the first row behind (right-side or left-side of) the Imaam without putting forefingers into the ears. Besides, in Iqaamah "Qad ' Qaamatis Salaah, Qad Qaamatis Salaah'' (prayer is ready to stand/establish, prayer is ready to stand/ establish) is recited after "Haie-ya 'Alal Falaah".

How to respond to Iqaamah?

Iqaamah should be responded like that of Azaan. However in response to ''Qad Qaamatis Salaah'' these words should be uttered:
"Aqaamahal Laahu Ta'aalaa wa Adaamahaa Maadaamatis-samaawaatu
wal-Ard''
(O, Allah keep it intact for ever till the sky and earth are in existence).
Should Iqaamah (Takbeer) be listened-to in sitting posture or standing position?

There are three instances that have been described by Hanafi scholars for when to stand up for Iqamah.
  1. When the Imam is sitting at his place in front of the rows, Imaam and Muqtadi should stand hearing "Haie-ya 'Alal Falaah". It is an undesirable act to listen to lqaamah standing.
  2. If the Imam is coming from behind, the people should stand up when he passes their row.
  3. If the Imam is coming from the front, the people should stand up as soon as he appears.

What is he called who makes Iqaamah?
He who utters lqaamah is called ''Mukabbir''.

Who should call iqaamah?
The first right of uttering Iqaamah is of muezzin who has made Azaan. However, any other person can also make Iqaamah with his permission or in his absence.

The Wording of Iqamah

Hazrat Bilal (radhiallahu anhu), Rasulullah's (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) muazzin, used to call out the words of azaan and iqaamah twice. (This Hadith is classified as Sahih — Musannaf Abdur Razzaak; see Aathaarus Sunan v.1, pg. 53)
The muazzins of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam), Abu Mahzoora (radhiallahu anhu) and Thaubaan (radhiallahu anhu) also used to call out the azaan and iqaamah in the above mentioned manner (i.e. by saying the words twice). Allaamah Shawkani (R.A.) has affirmed the authenticity of the above narrations in Naylul Autaar, (vol.2. pg.24.)

Covering of the Head During Salaah


Ibn Umar (R.A.) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) wore a white hat. (Tabarani — Allama Suyuti has classified this Hadith as highly authentic: see Sirajul Muneer; v.4, pg.112).
It is written in Fataawa Thunaaiyya vol. 1, pg. 525), and in the Fatawaa of the Ahle Hadith Scholars (vol. 4 pg.291) that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) always used to keep his mubarak head covered during salah. In the same books it is also mentioned that to intentionally remove the headgear (hat) and perform salah bare-headed is contrary to the sunnah. (vol. 1, pg.523.)

To Raise the Hands upto the Earlobes


Hazrat Qataada (radhiallahu anhu) relates that he saw Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) performing his salah. He relates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to lift his hands until they were in line with his earlobes. [Sahih Muslim, ch. on Istihbaabur Raf’, Hadith 391]
Hadrat Maalik ibn Huwairath (radhiallahu anhu) states, "When the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to make Takbeer, he would lift his blessed hands until his ears." Other words of Hadith state that he lifted them until his earlobes. (Bukhari, Muslim, Tahaawi)
Hadrat Baraa ibn Aazib (radhiallahu anhu) narrates, "I saw the Holy Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) lifting his hands until his ears when beginning namaaz, After that, he would never lift his hands (until his ears) again during the Salaah.' (Abu Dawood)
Hadrat Wail ibn Hajar (radhiallahu anhu) says, "I saw Rasoolullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) lift his hands when entering narnaaz.' Another narrator states that he used to lift them to his ears and thereafter cover his hands in his clothes. (Muslim)
Hadrat Abu Qulaaba (radhiallahu anhu) states, "Maalik ibn Huwairath (radhiallahu anhu) saw the Holy Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) lift his hands until his earlobes when making Takbeer-e-Tahrirna and lifting his head from Ruku.' (Bukhari, Abu Dawood, Nisai)
Hadrat Anas (radhiallahu anhu) narrates, "I saw the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) lift his hands until his ears when he made the Takbeer-e- Tahrima of Salah.' (Mustadraq, Daar Qutni, Baihaqi)

To Tie the Hands Beneath the Navel

According to Imam Abu Hanifa, it is part of the Sunna for a man performing the ritual prayer, salat, to place his hands beneath the navel. Many Companions of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and their students (Tabi'un) performed their salat in this manner.
Imam at-Tirmidhi writes that it is Sunna to place one hand over the other but there are different opinions amongst the Companions and their students regarding the actual positioning of the hands [at-Tirmidhi, Watal-yamin 'ala ash-Shimal]
Qadi Shawkani states that there existed different opinions amongst the scholars regarding the positioning of the hands during salat. The following consider it correct to place the hands beneath the navel: Imam Abu Hanifa, Sufyan ath-Thawri, Ishaq ibn Rahwia and Abu Ishaq [Nayl al-Awtar, Watal-yamin 'ala ash-Shimal]
The aforementioned scholars were outstanding in the field of Hadith sciences and clearly knew the differences between authentic, acceptable, weak and fabricated narrations. Furthermore, if the ahadith stating that the hands should be placed beneath the navel were fabricated then why would Imam Ahmed and Yahya ibn Mu'in, the teacher of both Imam al-Bukhari and Imam Muslim, act upon these narrations?

Hazrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) relates that the sunnah of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is to place one hand over the other below the navel. [Abu Dawud ,chapter on Wad’ul Yumna, Hadith 756]
The above-mentioned method of tying the hands is also related by Hazrat Anas (radhiallahu anhu).
Hadrat Wail ibn Hajar (radhiallahu anhu) states, "I saw the Holy Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) place his right hand over his left, below his navel,in salah.
Ibn Abi Shaiba (radhiallahu anhu) has narrated this Hadith with a Sahih chain (sanad). All of its narrators are credible.
ibn Shaaheen (radhiallahu anhu) reports that Hadrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) once said, "There are three habits of prophethood: hunying in breaking the fast, delaying Sehri and placing the right hand over the left below the navel in salah.”
Hadrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) states, "In Salah, to place the hand on the other (and in another narration: "to place the right hand over the left") below the navel is Sunnat.” Daar Qutni
Hadrat Anas (radhiallahu anhu) states, "To place the right hand over the left below the navel is one of the characteristics of prophethood." Ibn Hazam
Hadrat Abu Jubaifa (radhiallahu anhu) states that Hadrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) once said, "To tie the hands in namaaz is Sunnat, and both must be placed below the navel." Razeen
Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal writes:
“Ali said that it is a Sunna to place one hand over the other and beneath the navel” [Musnad Ahmed ibn Hanbal; also Daraqutni & Abu Dawud, Watal-yamin 'ala ash-Shimal]
Ibn Hazm writes that the hands should be placed beneath the navel and Anas reported that there are three things which are Sunna:
1. Not to delay the breaking of the fast [during Ramadan]
2. To end the fast aftet the very last minute
3. To place the hands beneath the navel during the prayer
[Ibn Hazm, Muhalla, Watal-Yamin]
The aforementioned narrations prove that it is an established Sunna to place the hands beneath the navel. These ahadith are neither weak nor fabricated as Ibn Hazm would have declared them as being such because he was in strong opposition to the Hanafi School of thought.
Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal writes:
Ali said that it is a sunnah to place one hand over the other and beneath the navel. (Musnad Ahmed bin Hanbal also Dar Qutni, Abu Dawud, Chapter: Watul-YAmin Alashimal).
Alama Ibn Hazm writes that the hands should be placed beneath the navel and Anas reported that there are three things which are Sunnah :
1. Not to delay the opening of the fast (during Ramadhan)
2. To close the fast at the very last minute
3. To place the hands beneath the navel during the prayer.

Reciting Bismillah Softly


Hazrat Anas (radhiallahu anhu) states, "I have performed congregational salah behind Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam), Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthmaan (radhiallahu anhum) and I did not hear any one of them recite Bismillahir rahmaan nir raheem" [Sahih Muslim, Hadith 399], Bukhari, Ahmad
Imam Tirmidhi (R.A.) states that the majority of the Sahaba (radhiallahu anhum) also used to recite Bismillah softly.
Audible recitation should commence with Surah Fatiha:
Hadrat Anas (radhiallahu anhu) states, "Indeed the Holy Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam), Hadrat Abu Bakr and Umar (radhiallahu anhum) used to begin their recitation (Qirat) with 'Alhamdulillahi Rabbil-Aalameen'." Muslim
Hadrat Anas (radhiallahu anhu) says, "Undoubtedly, the Noble Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wasallam), Hadrat Abu Bakr and Umar (radhiallahu anhum), used to recite 'Bismillaahir Rahmanir-Raheem' softly." - Tabrani, Abu Nuaim, Ibn Khuzaima, Tahaawi
Ibn Abi Shaiba reports, "Hadrat Abdullah ibn Mas'ud (radhiallahu anhu) used to recite 'Bismillah', 'A'uzubillah' and 'Rabbanaa lakal-Hamd' softly."
Hadrat Aisha (radhiallahu anha) states, "The Holy Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to be in his Salaah with Takbeer and his Qirat with "Al-Hamdu ...” Muslim, Abu Dawood

The Muqtadi (follower) Should Listen and Remain Silent


Allah Ta’aala says: "When the Qur’an is being recited then listen attentively and remain silent so that mercy will be showered upon you".
Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud, Abu Hurairah, Abdullah Ibn Abbas and Abdullah Ibn Mughaffal (radhiallahu anhum) state that this verse of the Quran was revealed with regards to the Khutba (of Juma’ah) and with regards to Salaah. [Tafsir Ibn Kathir, vol. 1 pg. 281]
The dictates of this verse of the Holy Qur’an is that when the Imam recites the Qur’an aloud, the followers should listen attentively, and when he recites softly, the followers should remain silent.
Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is reported to have said: "When you begin your congregational prayers, straighten your rows. Thereafter when the Imam says the takbeer (i.e. when he says Allahu Akbar aloud) you must also say the takbeer. However, when he begins the recital of the Qur’an, you must remain silent. And when he recites walad daalleen then you should say Ameen". By performing your salah in this manner Allah Ta’ala will love you." [Muslim; ch. ontashahhud]
(A similar Hadith has been narrated by Abu Hurairah (radhiallahu anhu)-Imam Muslim has attested to its authenticity; ibid).
Quranic Ayats:
"When the Holy Quran is recited, listen attentively to it and remain silent so that you may be shown mercy." Surah Aaraaf Verse 204
"And stand for Allahعزوجل in obedience (silence)." Surah Baqarah, Verse 238
Hadrat Ataa ibn Yasaar (radhiallahu anhu) asked the Sahaabi, Hadrat Zaid ibn Haarith (radhiallahu anhu), about recitation (Qirat) with the Imam انہ سئل زید ابن ثابت عن القراء ۃ مع الامام فقال لا قراءۃ مع الامام فی شیء” .He answered, "Qirat is completely not allowed with the Imam." Muslim, Baabu Sujoodit- Tilaawat
Hadrat Abu Bakr (radhiallahu anhu) once asked Salmaan, "What do you think about the Hadith of Abu Hurairah (radhiallahu anhu) .He replied, "It is entirely sound (Sahih)." In other words, the Hadith "When the Imam makes Qirat, you must remain silent" is Sahih. Muslim, Baabut Tashahud
Hadrat Jaabir (radhiallahu anhu) narrates, "The person who performed namaaz but didn't recite Surah Fatiha has not performed salah, except for when he behind an Imam (In other words, he shouldn’t recite Surah Fatiha at that time). Tirmidhi
Hadrat Abu Hurairah (radhiallahu anhu) reports that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said, "The Imam has been appointed so that he may be followed. So, when he makes Takbeer, you make Takbeer, and when he recites, you remain silent.” Nasaa'i
Hadrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) narrates, "A man asked the Holy Prophetصلی اللہ علیہ وسلم "Should I recite behind the Imam or remain silent?" He replied, "Remain silent. The Imam is sufficient for you." Daar-Qutni
Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Umar (radhiallahu anhu) used to repeatedly say: "Whoever performs salah behind the Imam, the Imam’s qiraat suffices for him". (Sunan Baihaqi; chapter on not reciting qiraat behind the Imam — Imam Baihaqi (R.A.) has stated that this Hadith is Sahih.)

The Person Performing salah Individually Must Recite Surah Fatiha, Not the Muqtadi


It is reported from Hazrat Ataa Ibn Yasaar (radhiallahu anhu) that he questioned Hazrat Zaid Ibn Thaabit (radhiallahu anhu) concerning reciting Qira’at with the Imam. Hazrat Zaid (radhiallahu anhu) answered: "There is no recitation of the Glorious Qur’an in any salah behind the Imam". [Sahih Muslim, chapter onSujood-ut-Tilaawah, Hadith 577]
There are people who believe that we should recite behind the Imam even when the Imam recites loudly or quietly. Their evidence is from the hadith in which the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said:
"The salat of the person who does not recite al-Fatiha is not accepted" [Bukhari & Muslim, Kitab as-Salat, Wujub al-Qira'at]
Rather than reading this hadith in isolation, when we read other sources of Islamic law we can establish that the meaning of this hadith is that it is essential to recite al-Fatiha when praying salat alone. Some people have also established from the above hadith that it implies that the recitation of al-Fatiha in every rakat is fard (compulsory). It is also worth mentioning that this hadith is established from a single narration, and an action cannot be proved to be fard from such type of narration. There is proof from Qur'an and Sunna which supports the view that if someone reads any part of the Qur'an in the salat, the salat will be accepted. Allah says in the Qur'an:
"Recite the Qur'an [in salat] that which is easy for you" [Surah al-Muzzammil, verse 20]
If Surat al-Fatiha was fard then the verse would have stated this explicitly. There is also another hadith which states that the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) taught a man how to perform salat, yet he did not mention al-Fatiha. Imam al-Bukhari and Imam Muslim write:
"The Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) was sitting in the masjid and a man came and performed salat. The Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) ordered him to perform salat again. When he finished, the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) told him again to perform salat. The man said, 'This is the best way that I can perform salat. Teach me a better way.' The Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said 'When you stand, say takbir then recite from the Qur'an whatever is easy for you' " [Bukhari & Muslim, Bab al-Wujub al-Qira'a]
Imam Muslim writes:
"Ma'mar reported from Zuhri that the Prophet Muhammad said, 'The salat of the person who does not recite Sura al-Fatiha and another part of the Qur'an is not accepted' " [Muslim, Bab al-Qira'a]
Imam Muslim's narration confirms that this hadith is for the person who is praying alone because when a person prays alone he reads Sura al-Fatiha and another part of the Qur'an. Even the people who recite al-Fatiha behind the Imam do not say that there should be another part of the Qur'an recited. So it is clear that this hadith is for those people who are praying alone.
Imam Daraqutni writes:
"The Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said that whoever joins the salat with the Imam in ruku' [before the Imam stands straight], that ruku will not have to be repeated" [Daraqutni, Adrak Imam Qabla ar-Ruku']
If the recitation of Sura al-Fatiha was fard, the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) would have told the man to recite al-Fatiha first and then to recite any other part of the Qur'an which was easy for him. Also the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) would not have said that the ruku' of the person who joins the Imam in ruku' does not have to be repeated. In such a case al-Fatiha is missed. If al-Fatiha was fard the person joining the salat at ruku' would have had to repeat his salat, simply because a fard was missing.
Allama Sa'idi writes:
"The meaning of the above debated hadith is similar to the following ahadith: The Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, 'Whoever lives close to the mosque and does not pray in the mosque his salat is not accepted.'
"There is another hadith, which states that if a person makes wudu' and does not recite bismillah, the wudu' is invalid. There is also another hadith stating that a person is not Muslim if his neighbour sleeps in a hungry state. Another hadith states that if a person does not fulfil their promise then he is not a Muslim. Of course, the person who fails to fulfil their promise is still a Muslim and, in the same way, if someone does not recite al-Fatihah in salat, his salat is still accepted but without full perfection. If this was not the case the Prophet should have said: 'The salat of the one who does not recite al-Fatiha is false' "
[Sa'idi, Sharh Muslim, Bab Wujubi Qira'at]
Hafiz Ibn Taymiyya writes:
"Some scholars say that al-Fatiha should be recited behind the Imam. The scholars of Hadith say this opinion is weak. Qur'an and authentic ahadith and the opinion of the early Muslims [salaf] is with those scholars who say that al-Fatiha should not be recited behind the Imam"
[Ibn Taymiyya, Tanaw Ibadat, p. 76]
Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Umar (radhiallahu anhu) was asked: "Must the muqtadi recite behind the Imam?" He replied that the qiraat of the Imam is sufficient for the muqtadi. But if he performs salah individually, then he must recite qiraat. It was the practice of Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Umar (radhiallahu anhu) also that he would not recite surah fatiha behind the Imam. (In Aathaarus Sunan (Vol. 1 pg.89) this Hadith has been classified as sahih).
Hazrat Jaabir (radhiallahu anhu) narrates that the one who does not recite sura fatiha even in one rakat, his salah is not valid. However, if he is behind an Imam he must not recite surah fatiha. (This Hadith has been classified as hasan Tirmizi - ch. on not reciting behind the Imam). It is on the basis of this Hadith that Imam Tirmidhi (R.A.) has narrated from Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal (R.A.) [who was the teacher of the ustad of Imam Bukhari (R.A.)] that the narration "Whoever does not recite surah fatiha his salah is not complete" refers to one who performs his salah alone. It does not include the muqtadi (Jami’ Tirmidhi, ibid). In the above Hadith it is very clearly mentioned that the muqtadi must not recite sura fatiha.

"Aameen" Must be said softly


Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is reported to have said: "Do not hasten before the Imam! When he says the takbeer, then you should do the same. When he recites Walad daalleen, then you should say Aameen. When he makes ruku’ then you should make ruku’. And when he says sami’-Allahu liman hamidah then you should say Allahumma Rabbana wa lakal hamd". [Sahih Muslim, Hadith 415]
With regards to the saying of Ameen this narration is very clear and explicit. Like in the case where the Imam says Allahu Akbar and sami’-Allahu liman hamidahaloud, but all the followers say "Allahu Akbar"and "Rabbana lakal hamd" softly. In the same manner when the Imam recites "walad daalleen" aloud, the followers should say Aameen softly. It is also reported from Abu Ma’mar that Umar (radhiallahu anhu) used to say: "The Imam will recite four things softly-Ta’awwuz, Bismillah, Aameen and Rabbana Lakalhamd" (Aini Vol. 1 pg. 620)
Hadrat Abu Hurairah (radhiallahu anhu) states that the Holy Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) once said, "When the lmam says "Aameen", you say it too, because whoever's Aameen conforms to the Aameen of the angels will have his previous sins forgiven." Bukhari, Muslim, Ahmad, Maalik, Abu Dawood, Tirmidhi, Nasaa'i, Ibn Majah
This Hadith establishes that the previous sins of he whose "Aameen" corresponds to the "Aameen" of the angels are forgiven, and it is apparent that the angels say "Aameen'' silently, since no one has heard it until today. Thus, we should also say "Aameen" softly.
There are two ways in which Amin can be similar to the angels’ Amin:
1) To say Amin with the Imam
2) To say Amin silently because the angels say Amin with the Imam and also silently.
If someone proclaims Amin loudly it would not be similar to the Angels’ as no one hears the Angels.
Hadrat Waa'il ibn Hajar (radhiallahu anhu) states, "I performed Salaah behind the Holy Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam).When he reached “... walad-Daaleen", he. said "Aameen" while keeping his voice soft." Ahmed, Abu Dawood Tayaalsi, Abu Ya 'laa. Daar-Qutni, Mustatlrak
He also narrates, قال سمعت رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم قرء غیر المغضوب علیھم و لا الضالین فقال امین و خفض بہ صوتہ(The translation is the same as the above Hadith.) Abu Dawood, Tirmidhl, Ibn Abi Shaiba
"Hadrat Umar (radhiallahu anhu) and Hadrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) never recited "Bismillah" or "Aameen" loudly." Tahaawi, Tahzeebul- Asaar
Hadrat Abdullah ibn Mas'ud (radhiallahu anhu) states, "The Imam must say four things silently: 'Bismillah', 'Rabbana lakal-Hamd', 'A'uzubillah' and 'At-Tahiyaat'. Baihaqi
The people who follow this action put forward one Hadith, which says that the Prophet (May Allah bless him and grant him peace) said Amin loudly in the Salaah.
We claim that it is true by saying that the Prophet (May Allah bless him and grant him peace) said Amin loudly a few times. The Prophet used to carry out actions only to educate people, for example, in Salaah-ul-Zuhr part of the Qur’an was recited loudly.
Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim write:
When the Prophet (May Allah bless him and grant him peace) was performing his Zuhr and Asr prayers, he recited part of the Qur’an loudly, which we could hear. (Bukhari and Muslim, chapter on Qiraat, Zuhr and Asr)
After reading this Hadith no one in the whole Ummah says that the Imam should recite any part of the Qur’an loudly in the Zuhr and Asr Salaah. This is because everyone knows that the Prophet (May Allah bless him and grant him peace) only did this to educate the people. In the same way, the Hadith that mentions that the Prophet (May Allah bless him and grant him peace) said Amin loudly does not mean that it is Sunnah to say Amin loudly. There is also proof from the Qur’an and Sunnah that Amin should be said quietly behind the Imam.
There is proof from the Qur’an that Amin is a du’a. For example, Allah T a’ala says in the Qur’an that Prophet Musa (May Allah be pleased with Him) prayed to Allah by saying:
"Oh Allah, destroy the wealth of Pharaoh" (Surah Yunus: Verse 87)
The Prophet Musa’ brother Haroon (May Allah be pleased with Him) was standing beside him and said Amin. Allah accepted their du’a by saying:
"I except both of your du’as" (Surah Yunus: 89)
The Prophet Musa (May Allah be pleased with Him) supplicated to Allah whereas Haroon only said Amin. But Allah attributed the du’a to both of them. This proves that Amin is a du’a. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir. Under Surah Fatihah)
Qadhi Shawkani and Imam Qurtubi also write, in the interpretation of Surah Fatihah, that Amin is a du’a. (Qurtabi and Fathul Qadeer under surah Fatiha)
Now that it has been proved that Amin is a dua, we should supplicate quietly to Allah. Proof from the Qur’an and Sunnah show that du’a should be recited quietly.
Allah T a’ala says in the Qur’an:
“Invoke your lord with humility and in secret. He likes not the aggressors.” (Surah al-Aa’raf: 55)
It is proved from the above verse that all should supplicate to Allah with humility and secrecy.
Allah says in the Qur’an:
“And remembering your lord by your tongue and within yourself, humbly and with fear without loudness in words.” (Surah al-Aa’raf: 205)
Qadhi Shawkaani writes:
In the above verse the word “remember” means du’a and du’a should be said secretly. (Fath ul qadeer. Under verse 205 Surah al-Aa’raf)
Allah T a’ala says in the Qur’an:
“This is a mention of mercy of your Lord to his slave Zakariyya. When he called out his Lord (Allah) – a call in secret.” (Surah Maryam: 2-3)
Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal writes:
The Prophet (May Allah bless him and grant him peace) said that Allah Ta’ala is pleased with those who remember him secretly. (Musnad Ahmad, narration of Saad bin Abi Waqqaas, volume 1 p.172)
It is proven from the Qur’an and Sunnah that du’a should be supplicated to Allah quietly and as Amin is also a du’a so it should be said quietly also. That is the reason why all du’as are read silently. For example Thanaa, Takbeer, Ta’awwudh, Tasbeeh, Tashahhud, salutation and the final sitting’s du’a are all read silently, so Amin should also be included in the above. The reason why the Imam says the Takbeer loudly is only to inform his followers that he is moving from one position to another.
Imam Muslim and Imam Bukhari write:
The Prophet (May Allah bless him and grant him peace) said that when the Imam says “Waladdaalleen”then you must say Amin because the Angels also say Amin and whosoever’s Amin coincides with that of an Angel, their past sins will be forgiven.(Bukhai and Muslim Chapter on a’meen)
Imam Muslim writes:
Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet (May Allah bless him and grant him peace) said that when the Imam says “Sami’allaahu liman Hamidah” you should say “Rabbanaa lakal Hamd”. Whoever’s Tahmeed becomes similar to the Angels’, their past sins would be forgiven. (Muslim Bab a’meen)
The Hadith of Amin and Tahmeed are written under the same chapter. Both of these Hadith mention that whosoever’s Amin or Tahmeed coincides with that of the Angels’ their past sins will be forgiven. It is clear now that Amin should be said as “Rabbanaa lakal hamd” i.e. silently and individually, without rhythm.
Imam Nasaa’ee writes:
The Prophet (May Allah bless him and grant him peace) said that when the Imam says “Waladdaalleen”, you should say “Amin”. This is because the angels and the Imam also say Amin. Whosoever’s Amin coincides with the Angels’; his past sins would be forgiven. (Nasaa’ee, Ibn Maajah, Daarimi, chapter Tahmeed, musnad Ahmad narration of Abu Hurairah)
This Hadith proves that Amin should be said as the Imam says his Amin. No one hears the Imam’s Amin, so no one should hear the follower’s Amin. The Prophet (May Allah bless him and grant him peace) has also ordered us to follow the Imam, so we should say Amin quietly.
Imam Ibn Abi Shaibah writes:
Wyle reported that he performed Salaah behind the Prophet (May Allah bless him and grant him peace) and he said Amin silently. (Musannaf ibn Abee Shaiba. Chapter Ta’meen)
Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal writes:
Wyle reported that the Prophet (May Allah bless him and grant him peace) led the Salaah and said Amin silently. (Musnad Ahmad bin Hambal, narrations of Wyle bin Hajjar)
Both of the above narrations prove that when the Prophet (May Allah bless himand grant him peace) led the Salaah, he said Amin silently.
Imam Abu Dawood writes:
When the Prophet (May Allah bless him and grant him peace) led the Salaah, after saying Waladdaalleen”, he became silent. (Abu Dawood. Chapter Al Qiraa’t)
The above narration proves that when the Prophet (May Allah bless him and grant him peace) became silent, it was to say Amin silently. If the Prophet (May Allah bless him and grant him peace) was to say Amin loudly then, there was no point in Him remaining silent after saying “Waladdaalleen”.

Raf ul Yad'ain

Raf'ay-yadayn simply means to raise the hands during prayer. When people begin their salat, they raise their hands to signify that they have left all things and submitted themselves towards Allah alone. This also signifies the individual's testimony of Allah's Unity. The Hanafis (as members of the Ahl as-Sunna wa'l-Jama'a) believe that this act of raising the hands to the level of the ears should only be undertaken at the start of the prayer and not during it.
There are those who hold the opinion that raf' al-yadayn should also be done before and after the ruku'; they hold their position because of the following reasons:
1) The Prophet (may Allahbless him and grant him peace) used to do this.
2) This was the practice of the Khulafa' ar-Rashidun and the 'Ashara al-Mubashshara (the ten Companions of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) who were given glad tidings of Janna on this earth during their lives). Altogether, there are proofs from twenty Companions.
3) The narrations of raf' al-yadayn are mutawatir (ahadith which have been narrated by many authentic narrators during the period of the Companions, The Tabi'un, and their students).
4) Raf' ay-yadayn is a pillar of salat and leaving it makes the salat invalid.
However, the position of the Hanafi madhab is that towards the end of our beloved Prophet's (may Allahbless him and grant him peace) life the practice of raf' al-yadayn had been abrogated, and that the Messenger of Allah (may Allahbless him and grant him peace) during his last prayers on this earthly life only performed raf' al-yadayn at the beginning of his salat. However, there were still some Sahaba who unknowingly continued the practice of raf' al-yadayn, without realizing that it had indeed been abrogated and obsolete. It was for this reason that at times, those who knew of its abrogation, began to ask those who continued its practice for their reason for doing so.
Regarding the claim that twenty Companions, including the 'Ashara al-Mubashshara and the Khulafa ar-Rashidun, performed raf' al-yadayn, this incidentally proves that the majority of the Companions did not practise raf' al-yadayn . Secondly, if this claim is true then why is this not recorded in Bukhari and Muslim, or in any other famous book of Hadith? If the support for twenty Companions practising raf' al-yadayn is not found in any Hadith book then how can this claim be true?
The claim that the hadith regarding raf' al-yadayn is mutawatir is also not true. This is because Imam Muslim and Imam al-Bukhari have only narrated the action of raf' al-yadayn from two Companions: 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) and Malik ibn Huwayris. Imam Zuhri narrated the hadith from Salim and Salim in turn narrated from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar. Abu Qalaba and Nasr narrated from Malik ibn Huwayris, and from them, Khalid and Qatada narrated. In any one of these chains there is only one narrator at a time, whilst in the other there were two at a time. How can this be called mutawatir? The above narrator's position and the narrations which go against the above narrations will be discussed later, insha'llah.
Regarding the claim that omitting raf' al-yadayn invalidates salat, nobody from among the Companions or even the Prophet (may Allahbless him and grant him peace) himself said that omitting raf' al-yadayn invalidates salat. The evidence for raf' al-yadayn being a pillar of salat is not even found in the books which contain collections of fabricated hadith. It is another matter if someone decides to introduce fabricated hadith!
Hadrat Alqamah (radhiallahu anhu) states, "Once, Hadrat Abdullah ibn Mas'ud (radhiallahu anhu) said, "Should I demonstrate the method of Rasoolullah’s (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) salah?" He then performed Salaah and, except for Takbeer-e-Tahrima, never raised his hands." Imam Tirmidhi (radhiallahu anhu) has said that this Hadith of Hadrat Abdullah ibn Mas'ud (radhiallahu anhu) is Hasan. Not raising the hands during the namaaz (Rafa Yadain) is the practice of many Ulama of the Sahaaba and Taba'een." Tirmidhi, Abu Dawood, Nasaa'i, Ibn Abi Shoiba
Hadrat Baraa ibn Aazib (radhiallahu anhu) once said, "When the Messenger(sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to begin salah, he would lift his hands and never raise them again until its end." Ibn Abi Shaiba
Hadrat Mujaahid (radhiallahu anhu) states, "I performed namaaz behind Abdullah ibn Umar 4-. Except for the first Takbeer of narnaaz, he never raised his hands again.” Tahaawi, Ibn Abi Shaiba
There is a narration regarding Hadrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu), that, "... He used to lift his hands for the first Takbeer of namaaz and never again in any position." Baihaqi, Tahuawi
Hadrat Aswad (radhiallahu anhu) states, "I saw Umar ibn Khattab (radhiallahu anhu) raising his hands for the first Takbeer. After that, he didn't raise his hands again in salah." Imam Tahaawi (radhiallahu anhu) has stated that this Hadith is Sahih.
Hazrat Jaabir Ibn Samurah (radhiallahu anhu) relates that once Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) came out of his house towards us and said: "Why is it that I see you all raising your hands as though they are the tails of stubborn horses. Be tranquil in salah". [Sahih Muslim, Hadith 430]
This hadith alone makes it clear that those narrations which mention the raising of the hands (during the salah) were narrated prior to the prohibition of this practice.
Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud (radhiallahu anhu) said: "Shall I not show you the manner in which Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) performed his salah?" Thereafter he performed the salah but he did not raise his hands except at the beginning (of his salah). [Tirmidhi, Hadith no.257] This Hadith is classified Hasan. Ibn Hazm (R.A.) has declared it as sahih. Ahmed Shakir (R.A.) has also declared it as sahih.
Imam Dhabee writes that ibn Umar said that he swore by Allah that raf’ul-yadain is bidah and that he had never seen the Prophet (May Allah bless him and grant him peace) practicing it. (Meezan-ul-I’tidaal, biography of Bishr bin Harab, by Imam dhahabi)
Imam Ibnul-Qasim, who was Imam Malik’s student, writes that Imam Malik says that apart from the beginning of the prayer, I am unaware of performing raf’ul-yadain at any other time. I believe that the practice of raf’ul-yadain during the prayer is weak (al-maduunah, Baab raf’ul-yadain).
Imam Malik’s saying that he was unaware of performing raf’ul-yadain does not mean that he was unaware of the Hadith. This was because he himself heard it along with ten of his colleagues and transmitted it to twenty-six of his students. The real meaning of his saying is that he was unaware of the practice of it. This was because neither Imam Zuhri, nor any of his students did raf’ul-yadain. Neither did people in Madinah do it nor do the people coming for Hajj from all over the world do it. Another point to raise is that Imam Malik who is a main narrator of this Hadith did not practice raf’ul-yadain himself. The practice of raf’ul-yadain was very uncommon in Imam Malik’s time.
How can we use this narration as evidence for raf’ul-yadain when the scholars who narrated it did not act upon it, and when the two main narrators have doubts in them? (Ibn Jurayj and Imam Zuhri)
Imam Humaidi, who was the teacher of Imam Bukhari and Muslim writes:
Abdullah bin Umar said:
The Prophet [May Allah bless him and grant Him peace] only perform raf’ul-yadain at the beginning of Salaah, not before or after doing ruku’. (Musnad Humaidi, Volume 2 pg. 277, Printed Maktabah Salafiyyah, Madeenat-ul-munawwarah)
Abdullah bin Mas’ood and Brabin Azib reported:
We saw the Prophet [May Allah bless him and grant Him peace] only performing Raf’ul yadain at the beginning of the Salaah.
Imam Ibn-ul-Qasim writes:
Imam Malik said that Imam Zuhri told him that he heard from Salim, who said that his Father (Abdullah bin Umar) reported, that the Prophet [May Allah bless him and grant Him peace] only performed raf’ul yadain at the beginning of the Salaah and not in any other part of it.
Imam Malik also said that he has no knowledge of doing raf’ul-yadain in any other part of the Salaah apart from the beginning. (Al madoonah-chapter on raf’ul-yadain)
Imam Malik also said:
To do raf’ul yadain is weak except at the beginning.[Al Madoona chap Raf ul yadain]
How can Imam Malik say that he had no knowledge of someone who practices raf’ul-yadain, even when he himself heard a Hadith supporting it from Imam Zuhri?
The answer to this is, as mentioned earlier, that Imam Malik knew the Hadith of raf’ul-yadain but he never saw anyone in Makkah or Madinah who practiced it. The reason for this is that the practice of raf’ul-yadain was abrogated.
Imam Tirmidhi writes:
Abdullah bin mas’ood said that he would perform the Salaah the way that the Prophet [May Allah bless him and grant Him peace] did. When he performed the Salaah, he only did raf’ul yadain at the beginning of the Salaah.
Imam Tirmidhi wrote in his narration:
The companions of the Prophet [May Allah bless him and grant Him peace], Tabi’een and scholars of Kufa were performing salaah without Raf’ul yadain.
Imam Tirmidhi’s narrations prove that no one practiced raf’ul yadain in the city of Kufah which became the center point of Islamic knowledge and thought. Imam Malik’s narration proves that no one was practicing raf’ul-yadain in Makkah or Madinah, as this practice had been abrogated.

The debate between Imam Auzaaee and Imam Abu Haneefah

These two Imams debated the matter of raf’ul-yadain once and it is described by Sufyaan bin Uyayna. Once Imam Abu Hanifah and Imam Auzaaee met in a market in Makkah.
Imam Auzaaee asked Imam Abu Hanifah why he did not practice raf’ul-yadain during the Salaah.
Abu Hanifah: There is no authentic Hadith about practicing raf’ul-yadain.
Auzaaee: Why isn’t there an authentic Hadith? Here is one, Imam Zuhri told me, who was told by Salim, who was told by Ibn Umar (Radiall hu anhu) that the Prophet [May Allah bless him and grant Him peace] practiced raf’ul-yadain before and after the ruku’.
Abu Hanifah: Hamad told me, who was told by Ibrahim, who was told by Ikrama, who was told by Aswad who was told by Abdullah bin Mas’ood (Radiall hu anhu) that the Prophet [May Allah bless him and grant Him peace] only practiced raf’ul-yadain at the beginning of performing his Salaah and not afterwards.
Auzaaee: The narration that I have presented to you has a shorter chain and your Hadith has a longer chain, for this reason, my Hadith is more Reliable than your’s.
Abu Hanifah: It does not matter if the chain of the Hadith is long or short, the priority of the Hadith depends on the narrators of the Hadith and how much knowledge of Hadith they had. The narrators of the Hadith, which I have presented, possess more expertise in the knowledge of Hadith. For example, Hamad is more knowledgeable than Imam Zuhri. Ibraaheem is more knowledgeable than Salim. Ikrama is a great scholar and Ibn Mas’ood is unique.
Imam Auzaaee then became silent.
(Musnad Imam Abu Hanifah, Chapter on Raf’ul-yadain)
This debate shows that Imam Auzaaee had no other evidence. If he had then, he would have presented it to defend his case in support of Raf’ul-yadain. Imam Abu Haneefah replied so beautifully that Imam Auzaaee was forced to become silent.

Jalsatul Istiraaha - Sitting briefly After The 2nd Sajdah Of The First Or Third Rakaat

In a narration from ibn Sahl (radhiallahu anhu) it is mentioned that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said the takbeer and simultaneously went into sajdah. Then he said the takbeer and simultaneously stood up erect without sitting. [Abu Daud, Hadith no. 966]
Imam Bayhaqi (R.A.) has recorded in his Sunan that this was the practice of Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud (radhiallahu anhu). Allama Zayla'i (R.A.) has recorded in Nasabur Raayah that the same procedure was the practice of Hazrat Umar, Ali, Abdullah Ibn Zubeir and Abdullah Ibn Abbaas (radhiallahu anhu). (vol. 1, pg. 289)
Likewise Allaamah Turkumani has recorded in Jauharun Naqi regarding several Sahaba (radhiallahu anhum) that it was their practice that after the first and third rakat they would stand up straight from sajdah without sitting. (vol. 1, pg. 125)
In both At-Tahiyaats, a male must sit on his legs by raising the sole of the right leg while keeping the left spread:
Sayyidah Aisha (radhiallahu anha) states, "The Holy Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)used to spread his left leg and keep his right leg raised:,) Muslim
Hadrat Abdullah ibn Umar (radhiallahu anhu) states, 'The Sunnat of salah is lifting the right leg and spreading the left." The narration of Nasaa'i also states that the toes of the right leg should face the Qibla. - Bukhari, Nasaa'i
Hadrat Abu Saeed Khudri (radhiallahu anhu) states; "when you sit in namaaz, raise your right leg and keep your left leg spread.” Baihaqi

Tashahhud


Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is reported to have said: "When you sit during salah (for Qa’dah Akheerah, the last Qa’dah) read the following:-
"All oral, physical and monetary worship is due to Allah alone. Salutations to you ‘O Nabi, and the mercy and blessings of Allah be upon you. Peace be upon us and upon all the righteous servants of Allah. I bear witness that none is worthy of worship besides Allah and that Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is his servant and messenger.)
Thereafter he would choose from the supplications whatever he wished."
[Sahih Muslim, Hadith no. 402; Sahih Bukhari, chapter on Tashahhud].

Rasing the Index Finger During Tashahhud


It is narrated that when Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to sit down to supplicate, (to recite tashahhud) he used to place his right hand on his right thigh and his left hand on his left thigh. He would indicate at the time of reciting the shahadah by raising his index finger. He would also join the ends of his thumb and middle finger (thereby forming a circle). [Sahih Muslim, chapter on the description of sitting-Hadith no.579]

Darood Sharif


The Sahaabah-e-Kiraam (radhiallahu anhum) inquired from Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) as to which durood should they recite (during salah). Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) replied: "Recite the following durood- Allahuma salli `ala Muhammadin wa `ala ali Muhammadin kama sallata `ala Ibrahim wa `ala ali Ibrahim. Innaka hameedun majeed. wa barik Allahuma `ala Muhammadin wa `ala ali Muhammadin kama barakta `ala Ibrahim wa `ala ali Ibrahim. Innaka hameedun majeed.
(translation: O Allah shower your mercy upon Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and the family of Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) as you have showered your mercy upon Ibrahim (A.S.) and the family of Ibrahim (A.S.). Behold, you are Praiseworthy, Glorious. O Allah shower your blessings upon Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and the family of Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) as you have showered your blessings upon Ibrahim (A.S.) and the family of Ibrahim (A.S.). Behold, you are Praiseworthy, Glorious.)




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8 comments:

Anonymous said...

He would indicate AT THE TIME OF RECITING THE SHAHADAH by raising his index finger. [Sahih Muslim, chapter on the description of sitting-Hadith no.579]


This is a clear blatant LIE. * It does not say anywhere in SAHEEH MUSLIM or any Hadith Book in fact, that -- "at the time of reciting the Shahadah", he would 'raise' his index finger.

Rather ALL THE HADEETHS on this subject state, that he would أشار point with his index finger throughout the Tashahhud, supplicating with it. And other authentic reports even state that he would يتحرك vigorously move it.

Anonymous said...

أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، كان إذا قعد في التشهد وضع يده اليسرى على ركبته اليسرى . ووضع يده اليمنى على ركبته اليمنى . وعقد ثلاثة وخمسين . وأشار بالسبابة

This is what it states in Saheeh Muslim. Bring me ONE SINGLE HADEETH (even a weak hadeeth) that says that he would 'raise up his finger at the time of saying the Shahadah' -- this is a bid'ah

AbdulBaasit Khan said...

RAISING THE HANDS IN SALAAH!!!

Narrated by al-Bukhaari (735) and Muslim (390) from ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with them both), who said that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم used to raise his hands to SHOULDER level when he started to pray, when he said “Allaahu akbar” before bowing in Rukoo’, and when he raised his head from Rukoo’.

The MAJORITY OF SCHOLARS followed this hadeeth and said that it is mustahabb [very recommended] for the worshipper to raise his hands at the points mentioned in the hadeeth.

Imaam al-Bukhaari (may Allah have mercy on him) wrote a SEPARATE BOOK on this issue which he called جزء في رفع اليدين Juz’ fi Raf’ al-Yadayn (Section on Raising the Hands)

- in which he proved that the hands should be raised at these two points on the prayer, and he strongly Denounced those who go against that. He narrated that al-Hasan said: “The Companions of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to raise their hands during prayer when they bowed and when they stood up (from bowing).”

Al-Bukhaari said, “Al-Hasan did not exclude ANY OF THE SAHAABAH from that, and it was not proven that any one among the Sahaabah did not raise his hands.”

See al-Majmoo’ by the great Imaam An-Nawawi, 3/399-406.


I do not know whether the ahaadeeth about raising the hands reached Abu Haneefah (may Allah have mercy on him) or not, but they did reach his followers. But they did not follow them because they had other ahaadeeth & reports which said that the hands should NOT be raised except when saying “Allaahu akbar” at the beginning of the prayer.

These ahaadeeth include the following:

[1] The hadeeth narrated by Abu Daawood (749) from al-Baraa’ ibn ‘Aazib, which says that the Messenger of Allah used to raise his hands almost to his ears when he started to pray, then he did not repeat (this action).

[2] The hadeeth narrated by Abu Daawood (748) from ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood who said: “Shall I not lead you in prayer as the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did?” Then he prayed and he only raised his hands once.

See Nasb ar-Raayah by the Imaam Az-Zayla’i Al-Hanafi, 1/393-407.

But these ahaadeeth were classed as da’eef (weak) by the Imaams of hadeeth.

The hadeeth of al-Baraa’ was classed as da’eef by Sufyaan ibn ‘Uyaynah, ash-Shaafi’ee, al-Humaydi the SHAYKH OF AL-BUKHAARI, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Yahya ibn Ma’een, ad-Daarimi, al-Bukhaari, and numerous others.

The hadeeth of Ibn Mas’ood (above) was classed as da’eef by ‘Abd-Allaah ibn al-Mubaarak, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, al-Bukhaari, al-Bayhaqi, ad-Daaraqutni and so many others!!!! Similarly, the reports which were narrated from some of the Sahaabah about not raising the hands are all da’eef.

I have quoted above the words of the great Imaam al-Bukhaari (may Allah have mercy on him): “…it was not proven that any one among the Sahaabah did not raise his hands.”

See Talkhees al-Habeer by al-Haafiz ibn Hajar, 1/221-223.

ONCE IT IS PROVEN THAT all these ahaadeeth & reports which say that the hands should not be raised are weak, then the ahaadeeth which say that the hands should be raised remain strong with no opposing reports. Hence the BELIEVER should never fail to raise his hands at the points in prayer described in the Sunnah. He should strive to make his prayer Like the Prayer of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم who said, “Pray as you have seen me praying.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 631).

Hence ‘Ali ibn al-Madeeni, THE SHAYKH OF AL-BUKHAARI, said: حق على المسلمين أن يرفعوا أيديهم عند الركوع وعند الرفع منه “It is the DUTY of the Muslims to raise their hands when they bow in Rukoo’ and when they stand up from Rukoo’.” Al-Bukhaari said: “ ‘Ali was the most knowledgeable of the people of his time”

AbdulBasit M. Khan said...

ONCE THE SUNNAH HAS BEEN explained clearly, no one has the right to ignore it, following whoever among the scholars said that. Imaam al-Shaafi’ee (رحمه الله تعالى) said: “The scholars are unanimously agreed that if the Sunnah of the Prophet becomes clear to a person, it is Not permissible for him to ignore it in favor of the opinion of anyone.”

Madaarij as-Saalikeen, 2/335.



“If a man is following Abu Haneefah or Maalik or ash-Shaafi’ee or Ahmad, and he sees that the view of another madhhab concerning a given matter is stronger, and he follows that, then he has done well, and that does NOT detract from his religious commitment or good character. There is No Scholarly Dispute on this point. Rather this is more in accordance with the truth and is more beloved by Allah & His Messenger.”

(Said by Shaykh al-Islam – may Allah have mercy on him – in al-Fataawa, 22/247).



* FINALLY AND IN CLOSING: The scholars who said that the hands should not be raised based on their own ijtihaad are to be excused, for they will be rewarded by Allah for their ijtihaad and their seeking the truth, as the Prophet said: “If a judge passes judgement based on his own ijtihaad and he is correct, he will have DOUBLE REWARDS; if he passes judgement based on his own ijtihaad and he makes a mistake, he will still have one reward.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 7352; Muslim, 1716)

Anonymous said...

The GREATEST IMAM AND MASTER of Hadith Scholars, accepted by all of the scholars of the Salaf as being the #1 authority in Hadeeth - along with Ahmad Ibn Hanbal and Al-Bukhaari (etc) -

the great Muhaddith & Haafizh, ABU ZUR'AH AR-RAAZEE.

He said about himself (when questioned), "I have memorized 200,000 hadeeths just as a person memorizes Surah Al-Ikhlaas." * Ishaaq Ibn Raahawaih said about him, كل حديث لا يعرفه أبو زرعة الرازي فليس له أصل "Every hadeeth that Abu Zur'ah Ar-Raazee does not recognize, then it is baseless!"


Look at this great Imaam of Islaam (Abu Zur'ah Ar-Raazee)...

وذكر إبراهيم بن حرب العسكري أنه رأى أبا زرعة الرازي بالمنام وهو يؤم الملائكة في السماء الرابعة فقلت بم نلت هذه المنزلة قال برفع اليدين في الصلاة عند الركوع وعند الرفع منه

Ibraaheem Ibn Harb Al-'Askaree (may Allah have mercy on him) narrated that he saw the great Imaam Abu Zur'ah Ar-Raazee in his dream. And he was leading the Angels in Salaah in the 4th heaven!! So I asked him, "How did you attain this level?"

He said to me: برفع اليدين في الصلاة عند الركوع وعند الرفع منه "By the raising of the hands in the Salaah when performing Rukoo' & when rising up from it."

-------------

EVEN SOME OF THE GREAT HANAFIS CHOSE TO DO THIS, among them `Isaam bin Yusuf Al-Balkhi (d. 210), a student of Imaam Abu Yusuf (رحمه الله).

`Abdullaah Ibn Ahmad reported from his father in his "Masaa'il" (p.60), "It is related from `UQBAH BIN 'AAMIR that he said about a man raising his hands during the Salaah: 'HE EARNS 10 GOOD DEEDS FOR EACH SUCH MOVEMENT.' "

Imad-ud-din Saqib said...

The thing is that Imam Abu Hanifa applied a unique rule which was not applied by the other Imams. He would always consider weak ahadith in his rulings in fiqh matters, (this implies not in aqeedah). Therefore, no matter how weak a narration would be, as long as it wasn't fabricated, he would consider it. That is one of the reasons why many of his rulings are different from the other school of thoughts. And that is also one of the reasons why the Hanafi fiqh got popular and was prevalent during most of the Khilafah.

AbdulBaasit Khan said...

RAISING THE HANDS IN SALAAH!!!

Narrated by al-Bukhaari (735) and Muslim (390) from ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with them both), who said that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم used to raise his hands to SHOULDER level when he started to pray, when he said “Allaahu akbar” before bowing in Rukoo’, and when he raised his head from Rukoo’.

The MAJORITY OF SCHOLARS followed this hadeeth and said that it is mustahabb [very recommended] for the worshipper to raise his hands at the points mentioned in the hadeeth.

Imaam al-Bukhaari (may Allah have mercy on him) wrote a SEPARATE BOOK on this issue which he called جزء في رفع اليدين Juz’ fi Raf’ al-Yadayn (Section on Raising the Hands)

- in which he proved that the hands should be raised at these two points on the prayer, and he strongly Denounced those who go against that. He narrated that al-Hasan said: “The Companions of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to raise their hands during prayer when they bowed and when they stood up (from bowing).”

Al-Bukhaari said, “Al-Hasan did not exclude ANY OF THE SAHAABAH from that, and it was not proven that any one among the Sahaabah did not raise his hands.”

See al-Majmoo’ by the great Imaam An-Nawawi, 3/399-406.


I do not know whether the ahaadeeth about raising the hands reached Abu Haneefah (may Allah have mercy on him) or not, but they did reach his followers. But they did not follow them because they had other ahaadeeth & reports which said that the hands should NOT be raised except when saying “Allaahu akbar” at the beginning of the prayer.

These ahaadeeth include the following:

[1] The hadeeth narrated by Abu Daawood (749) from al-Baraa’ ibn ‘Aazib, which says that the Messenger of Allah used to raise his hands almost to his ears when he started to pray, then he did not repeat (this action).

[2] The hadeeth narrated by Abu Daawood (748) from ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood who said: “Shall I not lead you in prayer as the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did?” Then he prayed and he only raised his hands once.

See Nasb ar-Raayah by the Imaam Az-Zayla’i Al-Hanafi, 1/393-407.

But these ahaadeeth were classed as da’eef (weak) by the Imaams of hadeeth.

The hadeeth of al-Baraa’ was classed as da’eef by Sufyaan ibn ‘Uyaynah, ash-Shaafi’ee, al-Humaydi the SHAYKH OF AL-BUKHAARI, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Yahya ibn Ma’een, ad-Daarimi, al-Bukhaari, and numerous others.

The hadeeth of Ibn Mas’ood (above) was classed as da’eef by ‘Abd-Allaah ibn al-Mubaarak, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, al-Bukhaari, al-Bayhaqi, ad-Daaraqutni and so many others!!!! Similarly, the reports which were narrated from some of the Sahaabah about not raising the hands are all da’eef.

I have quoted above the words of the great Imaam al-Bukhaari (may Allah have mercy on him): “…it was not proven that any one among the Sahaabah did not raise his hands.”

See Talkhees al-Habeer by al-Haafiz ibn Hajar, 1/221-223.

ONCE IT IS PROVEN THAT all these ahaadeeth & reports which say that the hands should not be raised are weak, then the ahaadeeth which say that the hands should be raised remain strong with no opposing reports. Hence the BELIEVER should never fail to raise his hands at the points in prayer described in the Sunnah. He should strive to make his prayer Like the Prayer of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم who said, “Pray as you have seen me praying.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 631).

Hence ‘Ali ibn al-Madeeni, THE SHAYKH OF AL-BUKHAARI, said: حق على المسلمين أن يرفعوا أيديهم عند الركوع وعند الرفع منه “It is the DUTY of the Muslims to raise their hands when they bow in Rukoo’ and when they stand up from Rukoo’.” Al-Bukhaari said: “ ‘Ali was the most knowledgeable of the people of his time”

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