Almost, a year ago, I published an article titled "Politics in Islam - The Khilafah". I also included in it the methodology of re-establishing it.
Even though, I updated it a few times, I still think that there is a need to publish a separate detailed article with a few changes in it.
Also, since I gave the examples of two Islamic groups struggling for the Khilafah, I'll use their examples again.
There is a difference of opinion among scholars about where and when the first Islamic state was established.
It is the view of some scholars that the first Islamic state was established in Madinat-un-Nabi, the city of the Prophet, or now more commonly known as Madinah. The other view will be discussed later on.
The reason for this view is the constitution that the Prophet Muhammad (صلي الله عليه واله وسلم) made which were to determine the relations of the Muslims with the non-Muslims. It also declared the Holy Prophet Muhammad (صلي الله عليه واله وسلم) as the highest and the only authority of Madinah.
The methodology that was used should be examined from the beginning when the Prophet Muhammad (صلي الله عليه واله وسلم) was granted prophethood.
In the beginning, the Prophet Muhammad (صلي الله عليه واله وسلم) only preached the message to his closest friends and relatives. Then, after approximately three years, he preached the message openly after he was commanded through a revelation.
After that persecutions started but the Prophet Muhammad (صلي الله عليه واله وسلم) did not allow the Muslims to defend themselves even though the persecutions were very severe.
Uptil the tenth year of prohethood, the Prophet Muhammad (صلي الله عليه واله وسلم) remained under the protection of his uncle, Abu Talib, who was one of the prominent leaders of Quraish. However, in this year, Abu Talib died.
Prophet Muhammad (صلي الله عليه واله وسلم) would frequently meet the leaders of different tribes asking them for unconditional protection. However, only the leaders of Aus agreed and as they did, their brother tribe, Khazraj also agreed. This eventually lead to the migration of the Prophet Muhammad (صلي الله عليه واله وسلم), of course after the command of Allah (سبحانه و تعاله).
The following stages can be derived from this.
1. The Secret Stage
2. The Stage of Inviting People Openly
3. The Stage of Seeking Unconditional Protection
The examples that I had given before were of Tanzeem-e-Islami and Hizb-ut-Tahrir. In fact, both of these are following this methodology.
I don't think there will be any problem with understanding how these groups are following the first two stages. However, there might be some confusion in the third stage. The fact is that both of the groups intend to follow it.
Hizb-ut-Tahrir thinks that the power lies with the army and therefore, unconditional protection should be asked for from the army.
Tanzeem-e-Islami, on the other hand, thinks that the power lies with the citizens of the state and therefore, unconditional protection should be sought from these citizens.
The other view that scholars hold is that the Islamic state was established in the 8th Hijrah, i.e. 8 years after the migration of the Prophet Muhammad (صلي الله عليه واله وسلم) when Makkah was conquered.
I have been able to find only two reasons which support this. The first of them is that Surah Nasr was revealed after the conquest of Makkah which mentioned that the help of Allah has come and therefore, the Muslims have been victorious.
The second one is that the word 'madinah' has been used for Madinat-un-Nabi such as in Surah 63, al-Munafiqoon. This word means 'a city'. However, for Makkah, the word 'balad' has been used which means 'a country'.
Please note that I am not so sure about the second reason because it may be that the words have been used interchangeably or it may be that the meaning of the word 'balad' has been changed.
The part before the migration to Madinah is same as the one mentioned above. Therefore, I will start the next stage with the number 4.
Soon after the migration, the Muslims were given the permission to fight in their defensive and sometime later, they were allowed to fight to increase the Muslim territory. This eventually lead to a truce between the Muslims and the Quraish of Maklah. The Quraish then broke the truce which lead to the conquest of Makkah by the Muslims.
The Prophet Muhammad (صلي الله عليه واله وسلم) then appointed walis (governors) and appointed different posts and declared some laws which had already been taught to the earlier Muslims either through the Holy Quran or the ahadith of the Prophet Muhammad (صلي الله عليه واله وسلم).
Three more stages may be derived from this.
4. The Stage of Fighting in Defense
5. The Stage of Fighting Offensively
6. The Stage of Establishing the Government.
Note that the last stage may also be inserted after the first three stages if the group is following the group of scholars who think that the first Islamic state was established in Madinah.
Taking the examples again, Hizb-ut-Tahrir is of the view of the first group of scholars so its methodology does not contain the last three stages. However, since Tanzeem-e-Islami is of the view of the second group of scholars, its methodology contains all the stages, whether in Makkah or Madinah.Submit to Social Websites