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Saturday, August 30, 2008

Things that invalidate the fast

We would like you to give us a summary of things that invalidate the fast.

Praise be to Allaah.

Allaah has prescribed fasting in accordance with the highest wisdom.

He has commanded the fasting person to fast in a moderate manner, so he should not harm himself by fasting or consume anything that will invalidate the fast.

Hence the things that invalidate the fast are of two types:

Some of the things that invalidate the fast involve things coming out of the body, such as intercourse, deliberate vomiting, menstruation and cupping. These things that come out of the body weaken it. Hence Allaah has described them as being things that invalidate the fast, so that the fasting person will not combine the weakness that results from fasting with the weakness that results from these things, and thus be harmed by his fast or his fast no longer be moderate.

And some of the things that invalidate the fast involve things entering the body, such as eating and drinking. If the fasting person eats or drinks, he does not achieve the purpose of fasting.

Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 25/248

Allaah has summed up the things that break the fast in the verse where He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“So now have sexual relations with them and seek that which Allaah has ordained for you (offspring), and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night), then complete your Sawm (fast) till the nightfall”

[al-Baqarah 2:187]

In this verse Allaah mentions the main things that invalidate the fast, which are eating, drinking and intercourse. The other things that break the fast were mentioned by the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) in his Sunnah.

There are seven things that break the fast, as follows:

1- Intercourse

2- Masturbation

3- Eating and drinking

4- Anything that is regarded as coming under the same heading as eating and drinking

5- Letting blood by means of cupping and the like

6- Vomiting deliberately

7- Menstruation and nifaas

The first of the things that invalidate the fast is: intercourse.

This is the most serious and the most sinful of the things that invalidate the fast.

Whoever has intercourse during the day in Ramadaan deliberately and of his or her own free will, in which the two circumcised parts meet and the tip of the penis disappears in either of the two passages, has invalidated his fast, whether he ejaculates or not. He has to repent, complete that day (i.e., not eat or drink until sunset), make up that day’s fast later on and offer a severe expiation. The evidence for that is the hadeeth narrated by Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: A man came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and said, “I am doomed, O Messenger of Allaah!” He said, “Why are you doomed?” He said, “I had intercourse with my wife (during the day) in Ramadaan.” He said, “Can you free a slave?” He said, “No.” He said, “Can you fast for two consecutive months?” He said, “No.” He said, “Can you feed sixty poor persons?” He said, “No.”…

Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1936; Muslim, 1111.

No expiation is required for any of the things that break the fast apart from intercourse.

The second of the things that invalidate the fast is masturbation.

This means causing ejaculation or climax by using the hand etc.

The evidence that masturbation is one of the things that invalidate the fast is the words of Allaah in the hadeeth qudsi in which He says of the fasting person: “He gives up his food and drink and desire for My sake.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1894; Muslim, 1151. Causing ejaculation comes under the heading of the desire which the fasting person gives up.

Whoever masturbates during the day in Ramadaan has to repent to Allaah and refrain from eating and drinking for the rest of the day, and he has to make up that fast later on.

If he starts to masturbate then stops without ejaculating, he has to repent, but his fast is still valid, and he does not have to make it up later because he did not ejaculate. The fasting person should keep away from everything that provokes desire and shun bad thoughts.

With regard to the emission of madhiy (prostatic fluid), the most correct view is that it does not invalidate the fast.

The third of the things that invalidate the fast is eating or drinking

This refers to food or drink reaching the stomach via the mouth.

If anything reaches the stomach via the nose, this is like eating or drinking.

Hence the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Snuff up water deeply into the nose (when doing wudoo’), except when you are fasting.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 788. If water reaching the stomach via the nose did not invalidate the fast, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) would not have told those who are fasting not to snuff up water deeply into the nose.

The fourth of the things that invalidate the fast is anything that is regarded as coming under the same heading as eating and drinking

This includes two things:

1- Transfusion of blood to one who is fasting – such as if he bleeds heavily and is given a blood transfusion. This invalidates the fast because blood is formed from food and drink.

2- Receiving via a needle (as in the case of a drip) nourishing substances which take the place of food and drink, because this is the same as food and drink. Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, Majaalis Shahr Ramadaan, p/ 70.

With regard to injections which do not replace food and drink, rather they are administered for the purpose of medical treatment – such as penicillin or insulin – or are given to energize the body, or for the purpose of vaccinations, these do not affect the fast, whether they are intravenous or intramuscular (injected into a vein or a muscle). Fataawa Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem, 4/189. But to be on the safe side, these injections may be given at night.

Kidney dialysis, in which blood is extracted, cleaned and then returned to the body with the additional of chemical substances such as sugars and salts etc. is regarded as invalidating the fast. Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 10/19

The fifth of the things that invalidate the fast is letting blood by means of cupping

Because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The cupper and the one for whom cupping is done have both invalidated their fast.” Narrated by Abu Dawood, 2367; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood, 2047.

Donating blood comes under the same heading as cupping, because it affects the body in the same way.

Based on this, it is not permissible for a person who is fasting to donate blood unless it is essential, in which case it is permissible. In that case the donor has broken his fast and must make up that day later on. Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, Majaalis Shahr Ramadaan, p. 71

If a person suffers a nosebleed, his fast is valid, because that happened involuntarily. Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 10/264

With regard to bleeding that results from extraction of a tooth, surgery or a blood test etc., that does not invalidate the fast because it is not cupping or something that is similar to cupping, unless it has an effect on the body similar to that of cupping.

The sixth of the things that invalidate the fast is vomiting deliberately

Because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever vomits involuntarily does not have to make up the fast, but whoever vomits deliberately let him make up the fast.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 720, classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi, 577.

Ibn al-Mundhir said: The scholars are agreed that the fast of one who vomits deliberately is invalidated. Al-Mughni, 4/368.

Whoever vomits deliberately by sticking his finger in his throat, pressing his stomach, deliberately smelling something nasty or persisting in looking at something that makes him vomit, has to make up his fast later on.

If his gorge rises, he should not suppress it, because that will harm him. Majaalis Sharh Ramadaan, Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, p. 71.

The seventh of the things that invalidate the fast is the blood of menses and nifaas

Because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Is it not the case that when she gets her period, she does not pray or fast?” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 304.

When a woman sees the blood of her period or nifaas (post-partum bleeding), her fast becomes invalid even if that is one moment before sunset.

If a woman feels that her period has started but no blood comes out until after sunset, her fast is still valid.

If the bleeding of a woman who is menstruating or in nifaas ceases at night and she has the intention of fasting, then dawn comes before she does ghusl, the view of all the scholars is that her fast is valid. Al-Fath, 4/148.

It is preferable for a woman to keep to her natural cycle and to accept that which Allaah has decreed for her, and not to take any medicine to prevent her period. She should accept what Allaah has decreed for her of not fasting during her period, and make up those days later on. This is what the Mothers of the Believers and the women of the Salaf used to do. Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 10/151. In addition, it has been medically proven that these means of preventing menstruation are harmful and many women have suffered menstrual irregularities as a result. If a woman takes pills and her period stops as a result, that is fine, she can fast and her fast is acceptable.

These are things that invalidate the fast. All of them – apart from menses and nifaas – only invalidate the fast if three conditions are met: that the person was aware of the ruling and not ignorant of it; that he did it knowingly and not out of forgetfulness; and that he did it by choice and was not forced to do it.

We should also note some things that do not invalidate the fast:

Enemas, eyedrops, eardrops, tooth extraction and treatment of injuries do not invalidate the fast. Majmoo’ Fataawa Shaykh al-Islam, 25/233; 25/245

Medical tablets that are placed under the tongue to treat asthma attacks etc, so long as you avoid swallowing any residue.

Insertion of anything into the vagina such as pessaries, or a speculum, or the doctor’s fingers for the purpose of medical examination.

Insertion of medical instruments or IUD into the womb.

Anything that enters the urinary tract of a male or female, such as a catheter tube, or medical scopes, or opaque dyes inserted for the purpose of x-rays, or medicine, or a solution to wash the bladder.

Fillings, extractions or cleaning of the teeth, whether with a siwaak or toothbrush, so long as you avoid swallowing anything that reaches the throat.

Rinsing the mouth, gargling, sprays etc. so long as you avoid swallowing anything that reaches the throat.

Oxygen or anaesthetic gases, so long as that does not give the patient any kind of nourishment.

Anything that may enter the body via absorption through the skin, such as creams, poultices, etc.

Insertion of a fine tube via the veins for diagnostic imaging or treatment of the veins of the heart or any part of the body.

Insertion of a scope through the stomach wall to examine the intestines by means of a surgical operation (laparoscopy).

Taking samples from the liver or any other part of the body, so long as that is not accompanied by administration of solutions.

Endoscopy, so long as that is not accompanied by administration of solutions or other substances.

Introduction of any medical instruments or materials to the brain or spinal column.

And Allaah knows best.

See Majaalis Ramadaan by Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, and the booklet Sab’oona Mas’alah fi’l-Siyaam.


Furthermore, I would say that since smoking is also included in fulfilling bodily desires so it will also be considered as a thing that invalidates the fast.

Differing from the mushrikeen with regard to the beard

I know that we are supposed to let our beards grow in order to be different from the mushrikeen, but nowadays they let their beards grow too. What is your opinion?

Praise be to Allaah.

It is waajib (obligatory) to let the beard grow, and shaving it is haraam (forbidden). Imaam Ahmad, al-Bukhaari, Muslim and others narrated from Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him and his father) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Be different from the mushrikeen: let your beards grow and trim your moutsaches.” Ahmad and Muslim reported from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Cut your moustaches and let your beards grow: be different from the Magians.” Persisting in shaving one’s beard is a major sin (kabeerah); the one who does this should be advised against it, and his action should be denounced, especially if he is in a position of religious leadership.

The idea of being different from the Magians and other mushrikeen does not mean being different from them in every single thing, particularly if they happen to be doing something righteous or good in accordance with the fitrah (natural inclinations of man). What is meant is that we should be different from them in matters where they have gone astray and deviated from the truth and the dictates of the fitrah, and gone against the way of the Prophets and Messengers by shaving their beards. We should differ from them in this case by letting our beards grow and cutting our moustaches, following the guidance of the Prophets and Messengers, and in accordance with the fitrah. It is proven that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Ten things are part of the fitrah: cutting the moustache, letting the beard grow, cleaning the teeth with a siwaak, rinsing the nose with water, cutting one’s nails, washing between the finger-joints, plucking the armpit hairs, shaving the pubic hair and cleaning one’s private parts with water.” (Reported by Ahmad, Muslim and the four authors of Sunan, from the hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah, may Allaah be pleased with her). Even if the kaafiroon start letting their beards grow, this does not mean that the Muslims are allowed to shave theirs, because as we have stated above, the idea is not to be different from them in everything, only in the things in which they have deviated from the truth and from the fitrah.


Islam Q&A
Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid

Ruling on shaving the beard

What is the ruling on shaving the beard or removing part of it?

Praise be to Allaah.

Shaving the beard is haraam because of the saheeh ahaadeeth that clearly state this, and because of the general application of texts that forbid resembling the kuffaar. One of these reports is the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar who said that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Be different from the mushrikeen: let your beards grow and trim your moustaches.” According to another report: “Trim your moustaches and let your beards grow.” There are other hadeeth which convey the same meaning, which is to leave the beard as it is and let it grow long, without shaving, plucking or cutting any part of it. Ibn Hazm reported that there was scholarly consensus that it is an obligation (fard) to trim the moustache and let the beard grow. He quoted a number of ahaadeeth as evidence, including the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) quoted above, and the hadeeth of Zayd ibn Arqam in which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever does not remove any of his moustache is not one of us.” (Classed as saheeh by al-Tirmidhi). Ibn Hazm said in al-Furoo’: “This is the way of our colleagues [i.e., the Hanbalis].”

Is it haraam (to shave it)? Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “The Qur’aan, Sunnah and ijmaa’ (scholarly consensus) all indicate that we must differ from the kuffaar in all aspects and not imitate them, because imitating them on the outside will make us imitate them in their bad deeds and habits, and even in beliefs, which will result in befriending them in our hearts, just as loving them in our hearts will lead to imitating them on the outside. Al-Tirmidhi reported that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “He is not one of us who imitates people other than us. Do not imitate the Jews and Christians.” According to another version: “Whoever imitates a people is one of them.” (Reported by Imaam Ahmad) ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab rejected the testimony of the person who plucked his beard. Imaam Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr said in al-Tamheed: “It is forbidden to shave the beard, and no one does this except men who are effeminate” i.e., those who imitate women. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had a thick beard (reported by Muslim from Jaabir). It is not permitted to remove any part of the beard because of the general meaning of the texts which forbid doing so.


Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 5/133

Ruling on so-called “Islamic” songs with musical instruments

I would like to know if muslims are allowed to lisen to islamic songs with instruments in it. please answer by using the quran and the sunnah or ijmaa.

Praise be to Allaah.

The aayaat of the Qur’aan and the Ahaadeeth of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) indicate that musical instruments are condemned, and warn us against them. The Qur’aan teaches that playing these instruments is one of the things that leads people astray and constitutes mockery of the Signs of Allaah. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And of mankind is he who purchases idle talk to mislead (men) from the Path of Allaah, without knowledge, and takes it (the Path of Allaah, the Verses of the Qur’aan) by way of mockery. For such there will be a humiliating torment (in the Hell-fire).” [Luqmaan 31:6]

Most of the scholars interpreted lahw al-hadeeth (“idle talk”) as meaning singing and musical instruments, and every voice that diverts people from the truth.

Al-Tabari (Jaami’ al-Bayaan, 15/118-119), Ibn Abi’l-Dunya (Dham al-Malaahi, 33) and Ibn al-Jawzi (Talbees Iblees, 232) all reported that concerning the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):

“[Allaah said to Shaytaan;] ‘And istafziz [literally means befool them gradually] those whom you can with your voice, make assaults on them with your cavalry and your infantry, mutually share with them wealth and children, and make promises to them.’ But Shaytaan promises them nothing but deceit” [al-Isra’ 17:64]

Mujaahid said, “This refers to singing and flutes.”

Al-Tabari reported that al-Hasan al-Basri said:

“His voice is the tambourine.”

Ibn al-Qayyim said in Ighaathat al-Lahfaan (1/252):

“The grammatical structure here (idaafah – genitive or possessive) is used to make something specific (idaafat al-takhsees), and in all these words in the aayah it refers back to the Shaytaan [addressed here as ‘you’ by Allaah, may He be glorified]. Everyone who speaks about anything other than obedience of Allaah or plays a reed pipe, flute, tambourine or drum, all of this is the voice of Shaytaan.”

Al-Tirmidhi reported in his Sunan (no. 1005) from Ibn Abi Layla from ‘Ata’ from Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) went to to al-Nakhl with ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn ‘Awf, when his son Ibraaheem was dying. He took the child in his lap and his eyes filled with tears. ‘Abd al-Rahmaan said, ‘Are you weeping when you have forbidden us to weep?’ He said, 'I do not forbid weeping. What I have forbidden is two foolish and evil kinds of voices: voices at times of entertainment and play and the flutes of the Shaytaan, and voices at times of calamity and scratching the face and rending the garments and screaming.’”

Al-Tirmidhi said: this is a hasan hadeeth. It was also reported by al-Haakim in al-Mustadrak, no. 1683, al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubra (4/69), al-Tayaalisi in Musnad (no. 1683) and by al-Tahhaawi in Sharh al-Ma’aani, 4/29, and it was classed as hasan by al-Albaani.

Al-Nawawi said: “What is meant here is singing and musical instruments.” See Tuhfat al-Ahwadhi, 4/88.

It was reported in a saheeh hadeeth from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “In my ummah there will be people who allow fornication/adultery (zina), silk, wine and musical instruments [ma’aazif]. Some people will stay at the side of a mountain, and they will have flocks of sheep. When a poor person comes in the evening to ask them for something he needs, they will say. ‘Come back to us tomorrow.’ Then during the night Allaah will destroy them by causing the mountain to fall upon them, while He changes others into apes and swine. They will remain in such a state until the Day of Resurrection.’”

(Reported by al-Bukhaari in al-Saheeh mu’allaqan, 51/10. Reported mawsoolan by al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubra, 3/272; al-Tabaraani in al-Mu’jam al-Kabeer, 3/319; and Ibn Hibbaan in al-Saheeh (8/265-266). Classed as saheeh by Ibn al-Salaah in ‘Uloom al-Hadeeth (32), Ibn al-Qayyim in Ighaathat al-Lahfaan (255) and Tahdheeb al-Sunan (5/270-272), al-Haafiz in al-Fath (10/51) and al-Albaani in al-Saheehah (1/140)).

Al-Haafiz said in al-Fath (10/55): Ma’aazif refers to musical instruments. Al-Qurtubi reported from al-Jawhari that ma’aazif meant singing, and what it says in his book al-Sihaah is that it refers to musical instruments. It was also said that it is the sound of musical instruments. In a footnote by al-Dimyaati it says: ma’aazif is tambourines and other kinds of drums. The word ‘azif is applied to singing and all other kinds of instruments that may be played.

Ibn al-Qayyim said in Ighaathat al-Lahfaan (1/256):

The evidence for this is that ma’aazif refers to all kinds of things used for entertainment. There is no dispute among scholars of the Arabic language on this point. If they were halaal, he would not have condemned those who permitted them, or compared permitting them to permitting wine and zina.

We may understand from the hadeeth that all kinds of musical instruments are forbidden. This is clear from the hadeeth for a number of reasons:

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said “… there will be people who allow…” It is clear that the things listed here, including musical instruments, are forbidden in sharee’ah, but those people will allow them.

He compared musical instruments to things that are definitely known to be haraam, namely zina and alcohol. If instruments were not haraam, he would not have made this comparison. The evidence of this hadeeth that singing is haraam is definitive. Even if no other hadeeth or aayah spoke about musical instruments, this hadeeth would be sufficient to prove that they are haraam, especially the kind of singing that is known among people nowadays, the essence of which is obscenity and foul talk, based on all kinds of musical instruments such as guitars, drums, flutes, ouds, zithers, organs, pianos, violins and other things that make it more enticing, such as the voices of these effeminate singers and whores.

(See Hukm al-Ma’aazif by al-Albaani, Tas-heeh al-Ahkta’ wa’l-Awhaam al-Waaqi’ah fi Ahaadeeth al-Nabi ‘alayhi’l-salaam by Raa’id Sabri, 1/176).

Shaykh Ibn Baaz said in Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 3/423-424):

“Ma’aazif refers to singing and musical instruments. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) told us that at the end of time there will come a people who will allow these things just as they will allow alcohol, zina and silk. This is one of the signs of his Prophethood, for all of this has happened. The hadeeth indicates that [musical instruments] are haraam, and condemns those who say they are halaal, just as it condemns those who say that alcohol and zina are allowed. The aayaat and ahaadeeth that warn against singing and musical instruments are many indeed. Whoever claims that Allaah has allowed singing and musical instruments is lying and is committing a great evil. We ask Allaah to keep us from obeying our desires and the Shaytaan. Even worse and more seriously sinful than that are those who say it is mustahabb. Undoubtedly this stems from ignorance about Allaah and His Religion; it is insolent blasphemy against Allaah and lying about His Laws. What is mustahabb is to beat on the daff [simple hand drum] at weddings. This is mustahabb for women only, in order to announce the wedding and to distinguish it from fornication. There is nothing wrong with women singing amongst themselves, accompanied by the daff, so long as the songs contain no words that encourage evil or distract people from their duties. It is also a condition that this should take place among women only, and there should be no mixing with men. It should also not cause any annoyance or disturbance to neighbours. What some people do, of amplifying such singing with loudspeakers is evil, because of the disturbance it causes to other Muslims, neighbours and others. It is not permissible for women, in weddings or on other occasions, to use any instrument other than the daff, such as the oud, violin, rebab (stringed instrument) and so on. This is evil, and the only concession that women are given is that they may use the daff.

As for men, it is not permissible for them to play any kind of musical instrument, whether at weddings or on any other occasion. What Allaah has prescribed for men is training in the use of instruments of war, such as target practice or learning to ride horses and competing in that, using spears, shields, tanks, airplanes and other things such as cannons, machine guns, bombs and anything else that may help jihaad for the sake of Allaah.”

Shaykh al-Islam said in al-Fataawa (11/569):

“I know that in the ‘golden age’, the first and best three centuries, in the Hijaaz, in Syria, in the Yemen, in Egypt, in the Maghreb, in Iraq, in Khorasan, none of the religious and righteous people, the ascetics and those who worshipped Allaah much, would gather to listen to this whistling and clapping and drum-beating and so on. This was innovated after that at the end of the second century, and whenever the imaams saw it, they denounced it.”

As for these anaasheed which are described as “Islamic” but are accompanied with musical instruments, giving them this name lends them some measure of legitimacy, but in fact they are singing and music, so calling them Islamic nasheeds is falsehood and deception. They cannot be a substitute for singing, as an evil thing cannot be substituted for another evil thing. We should replace something evil with something good. Listening to it on the grounds that it is Islamic and an act of worship is bid’ah, and Allaah does not allow this. We ask Allaah to keep us safe and sound.

Islam Q&A
Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid

For more fatwas related to this topic click here.

It is not permissible to call kuffaar to Islam by means of religious songs (nasheeds) accompanied by musical instruments

When we want to attract Christians to Islam, is it permissible to use religious songs accompanied by music? Is it permissible to have a group called a religious group because they sing religious songs accompanied by musical instruments?

Praise be to Allaah.

In my opinion there is no need to attract people in this manner; you should use permissible means such as listening to Qur’aan with proper tajweed and tarteel (correct recitation) and listening to eloquent ahaadeeth which move the listener, and beneficial, moving poems (qaseedahs) and nasheeds. You can also provide clear proof of what is good about Islam and explain its teachings and noble aims which will demonstrate that it is the religion that befits the natural inclinations of man (deen al-fitrah) and encompasses all the interests of mankind. Whoever can only be attracted by things that include forbidden elements such as singing, instruments and music is no good and I do not think that he can be attracted to Islam at all. And Allaah knows best.


From al-Lu’lu’ al-Makeen min Fataawaa Ibn Jibreen, p. 28

For more fatwas related to this topic click here

Evidence that Muhammad (S) was a Prophet

All perfect praise be to Allaah, The Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah, and that Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) is His slave and Messenger.

The signs that prove the prophecy of Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) are numerous. Many books have been written to enumerate them and thoroughly discuss them. We would like to mention some of these signs as reported by Muslim scholars and which prove that Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) was a real Prophet including:

- First, his good biography and high morals as well as the noble qualities that distinguished him. He was known before becoming a Prophet as a truthful and honest person, although the community where he lived was a society of ignorance. This was, perhaps, the most important sign of his prophecy. He was not known to have ever lied on people. So, why should he lie on be half of the Lord by claiming that he was a Prophet, if he was not a real Prophet?

- Second, the powers and triumphs Allaah gave him and the spread of the religion he preached, as well as the triumph of this religion over all existing religions in a short period of time. Had he been a liar, Allaah would have humiliated and destroyed him as He did with those before him who falsely claimed Prophethood.

- Third, the miracles Allaah gave him as supporting evidence were beyond the ability of human beings and were beyond range of natural phenomena. The moon split for him, water gushed from his fingers, food became more abundant in his hands, and similar phenomena were authentically reported and happened in a way that could not be denied.

- Fourth, the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) was backed by the greatest miracle which is the Quran. In fact, Quran was a challenge and remains a challenge for Arabs who were known to be good poets and eloquent speakers. Allaah challenged them to write a single Surah (chapter) that would be similar to that of Quran, but the Arabs were unable to do so. Indeed, the challenge still endures, none of the Arabs throughout history - since the revelation of the Quran - was able to make anything that was even similar to it. No doubt that the Quran has been preserved intact until it came to us. Groups of people memorized it including children, adults, males and females. So generations brought the Quran to generations until it reached us as it was revealed 14 centuries ago. Hence, the Quran remains intact protected from distortion or alteration. Nothing has been added to it, nor taken from it. Quran is full of scientific facts that were verified only in these times of scientific investigation. No doubt that Muhammad who was illiterate would not have possessed this knowledge 14 centuries ago. Doesn't this prove the authenticity of the Quran and that it is the Word of the Creator of the Universe who knows all its secrets?

- Fifth, the things from the unseen that he (the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention )) informed us about. Some of them occurred during his life time. Others happened later. Some of these things happened to the Prophets, may Allaah exalt their mention, who preceded him and some are still to occur. He also informed about the signs of The Day of Judgment, some of which had already been seen such as widespread killings and genocide, adultery and fornication and the consumption of the alcohol, outnumbering of males by females and the increased number of earthquakes, and afflictions,… etc.

- Sixth, the testimony of some of the people of the Book that he was a true Prophet. Some of them believed in him like 'Abdullaah Ibn Salaam  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him who was a Jew as well as Negus (king of Abyssinia) who was a Christian. Some of the people of the Book certified that he was a Prophet from Allaah but refused to follow him like Huyayy Ibn Akhtab.

The above are some of the signs that prove his Prophethood and the authenticity of his revelations.

Allaah Knows best.

Fatwa answered by: The Fatwa Center at Islamweb

Questions that the Jews posed to the Prophet

All perfect praise be to Allaah, The Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah, and that Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) is His slave and Messenger.

No doubt that the Jews disbelieved in what Allaah revealed to our Prophet Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) and hated it. They were envious of him - except a few of them - because he was not one of them, i.e. did not descend from the children of Israel.

Allaah Says (which means): {And when there came to them a Book [i.e. the Quran] from Allaah confirming that which was with them - although before they used to pray for victory against those who disbelieved - but [then] when there came to them that which they recognized, they disbelieved in it; so the curse of Allaah will be upon the disbelievers. How wretched is that for which they sold themselves - that they would disbelieve in what Allaah has revealed through [their] outrage that Allaah would send down His favor upon whom He wills from among His servants. So they returned having [earned] wrath upon wrath. And for the disbelievers is a humiliating punishment.} [Quran 2:89-90].

However, we do not know of any authentic Hadeeth stating that they prepared forty questions for the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) and asked him about them. What is proved in the books of Imaans Al-Bukhaari and Ahmad  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  them as well as other authentic sources is that they asked him seven questions.

Al-Bukhaari  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him reported that Anas  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him narrated that when 'Abdullaah Ibn Salaam  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him heard about the arrival of the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) to Madeenah, he came to him and asked him about some things saying: "I will ask about three things that none except a messenger knows: what is the first sign of the Hour? What is the first meal that the dwellers of Paradise eat? Why is it that the child sometimes resembles his father and other times his mother?" The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: "Jibreel (Gabriel) informed about this earlier. Ibn Salaam  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him said: "That is the Jews' enemy from the angels." The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: "As for the first sign of the Hour, it is a fire that gathers the people from the East and the West. As for the first meal that the dwellers of Paradise eat, it is a portion of the fish liver. As for the child, if the water (i.e. sperm) of the man comes before that of the woman, the child resembles his father and if the mother's water comes first then the child resembles her. Thereupon, Ibn Salaam  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him said: "I bear witness that none has the right of being worshipped but Allaah and that you are His messenger." Then Ibn Salaam  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him said: "O Prophet of Allaah, the Jews are people of falsehood. So ask them about me before they realize that I have become Muslim. The Jews came and the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) asked them: "How do you grade 'Abdullaah Ibn Salaam within your community." They said: "Our best and the son of our best." Thereupon, the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: "What if 'Abdullaah Ibn Salaam becomes Muslim?" They said: "May Allaah protect

him from that!" The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) then repeated the same questions and the Jews repeated the same answers. At that time, 'Abdullaah Ibn Salaam  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him came out to them and said: 'I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped but Allaah and that Muhammad is His messenger.' Thereupon, they (the Jews) said: "He is our worst and the son of our worst," and demeaned him. Ibn Salaam  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him said: 'This is what I feared, O Prophet of Allaah."

Ahmad  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him reported that Ibn Abbaas  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him said: "A group of Jews came one day to the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) and said: 'O Abu Al-Qaasim, tell us some things that only true messengers of Allaah know.' The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: "Ask me about whatever you wish, but promise me by the Name of Allaah and by the covenant Prophet Ya'qoob  may  Allaah  exalt  his  mention took from his sons, that if I tell something that you know, then you will follow me and become Muslims." They said: "That's for you." Thereupon they said: "Tell us about the following four things: tell us about the meal that Israel forbade himself before the revelation of the Torah and tell us about the water (sperm) of the woman and the water of the man how is the male child formed from that? And tell us this illiterate Prophet during his sleep and who is his guardian from the angels." The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: "Do you accept by the covenant of Allaah that you will follow me if I inform you?" They gave him as much covenant and promise as he wished. Then the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: "I ask you by the One Who revealed the Torah to Moosaa  may  Allaah  exalt  his  mention do you know that Israel (Ya'qoob  may  Allaah  exalt  his  mention) fell badly sick and his sickness took a long time, then he made a vow to Allaah that he would forbid on himself the food he liked most if Allaah cures him, and the food he liked most was camel meat and the drink was camel milk. They said: "Yes." He said:

"O Allaah testify against them." Then he  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: "I ask you by Allaah, the One Who has no partners Who revealed the Torah to Moosaa  may  Allaah  exalt  his  mention do you know that the man's water is white and thick and that the woman's water is yellow and thin. Any of the two waters gets above the other gets the resemblance of the child in his sex and characters by the will of Allaah. If the water of the man gets over the woman it is a male by the Will of Allaah and if the water of the woman gets above that of the man then it is a female by the Will of Allaah. They said: 'By Allaah what you said is true.' The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: "O Allaah testify against them."

Then he said: "I ask you by the One Who revealed Torah to Moosaa  may  Allaah  exalt  his  mention do you know that the eyes of this illiterate Prophet sleep but his heart does not." They said: 'By Allaah that is true.' He said: "O Allaah, testify against them." They said: 'You, now tell us about your guardian from the angels, we will stay with you or leave you according to that.' He  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: "My guardian is Jibreel (Gabriel) and Allaah never sent any Prophet but he was his guardian." The Jews said: 'So, we will separate from you. Had your guardian been another angel not Jibreel, we would have followed you and believed in what you brought.'

The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: "But what prevents you from believing in him?" They said: 'He is our enemy.' Then Allaah revealed the following verses (which means): {Say, “Whoever is an enemy to Gabriel - it is [none but] he who has brought it [i.e. the Quran] down upon your heart, [O Muhammad], by permission of Allaah,…} [Quran 2:97]. Allaah Says (which means): {And when a Messenger from Allaah came to them confirming that which was with them, a party of those who had been given the Scripture threw away the Book of Allaah behind their backs as if they did not know.} [Quran 2:101]. Allaah Says (which means): {So they returned having [earned] wrath upon wrath} [Quran 2:90].

Allaah Knows best.

Fatwa answered by: The Fatwa Center at Islamweb

Ruling on playing electronic games

What is the ruling on playing or allowing one’s children to play the many electronic games that are widely available, such as those produced by companies like Sony and Nintendo, etc.?

Praise be to Allaah and peace be upon the Messenger of Allaah.

The one who looks at these games will see that they are based on mental skills and individual reactions or decisions. These games are of various types, with many aspects. Some of them take the form of illusionary battles which train a person in what to do in similar circumstances [in real life]; some are based on being alert so as to save oneself from danger; fighting enemies and destroying targets; planning; having adventures; finding the way out of a labyrinth; escaping from wild beasts; racing cars, planes, etc.; overcoming obstacles; searching for treasure. Some games increase knowledge and enhance one’s interests, such as games that involve taking things apart and putting them back together, jigsaw puzzles, building things, colouring, and shading and lighting.

The shar'i ruling:

Islam does not forbid leisure or having fun in permissible ways. The basic rule concerning these games is that they are permissible so long as they do not get in the way of obligatory duties such as establishing prayer [i.e., praying properly and on time] and honouring one’s parents, and so long as they do not include anything that is haraam. There are, however, many haraam elements in these games, such as the following:

Games which depict wars between the people of this world (“good guys”) and people from the sky (“bad guys”), with all its implications of accusations against Allaah, may He be glorified, or the noble angels.

Games which involve sanctifying the cross or passing over or by it to gain strength, to bring one back to life or the give the player extra “lives” and so on. Also, games which are used for designing birthday cards as in Christian culture are also forbidden.

Games which approve of witchcraft/magic, and which glorify witches/magicians/sorcerers, etc.

Games which are based on hatred of Islam and Muslims, like the game in which a player gets 100 points if he hits Makkah, 50 points if he hits Baghdaad, and so on.

Games that glorify the kuffaar and show pride in belonging to them, like games in which if a player chooses an army belonging to a kaafir state he becomes strong, and if he chooses an army belonging to an Arab state he becomes weak. Also, games which teach a child to admire kaafir sports clubs and the names of kaafir players.

Games that include depictions of nudity, and some games that allow the winner to see a pornographic picture; games that corrupt morals, such as games where the idea is to run away with a girlfriend from the bad guys or a dragon.

Games based on ideas of gambling.

Music and other things that are known to be forbidden in Islam.

Physical harm, such as damage to the eyes and nervous system; harmful effects of game sounds on the ears. Modern studies have shown that these games may be addictive and harmful to the nervous system, as well as causing stress and nervous tension in children.

Making children get used to violence and criminality, and teaching them to take killing and murder lightly, as in the famous “Doom” game.

Corrupting children’s sense of reality by teaching them about a world of illusions and impossible things, such as coming back from the dead, supernatural powers that do not really exist, images of space aliens, and so on.

We have gone into details about some of the ideological dangers and things that are prohibited by Islam because many fathers and mothers do not pay attention to these things, and they bring these games for their children and let them play with them.

We should also point out that it is not permissible to compete for prizes in playing these electronic games, even if the game itself is permissible, because they are not a means of jihaad, and they do not help you develop strength for jihaad.


(al-Musaabaqaat wa Ahkaamuhaa fi’l-Sharee’ah al-Islaamiyyah by Dr, Sa’d al-Shathri).

Sunday, August 24, 2008

Converts Section

Salam!
This is the official launch of the Converts Section of the IslamicB. Hope it succeeds!
Wasalam!

Saturday, August 23, 2008

Non-Muslims Section

Salam!
This is the official launch of the Non-Muslims Section of the IslamicB. Hope it succeeds!
Wasalam!

Friday, August 22, 2008

Newsletters

Salam!
Inshallah the first newsletter will be sent on this Sunday and every week on sunday you will inshallah receive a newsletter. If any of the subscribers do not receive it, please email me at imaduddinsaqib@hotmail.com.
Wasalam!

Saturday, August 16, 2008

The Sight of Kabah

One never tires of gazing at the sight of the House of Allah, the Kaa'ba. The site upon which the mercy and blessings of Allah are constantly descending. There is truly nothing comparable to the House of Allah on this Earth. People wish time would stand still so they could keep gazing at the Kaa'ba; their thirst is never quenched, rather it increases.Once, while on a visit to Washington, people told me that a woman had accepted Islam and had some questions for me. They told me that many non-practicing Muslim women had started practicing again due to her. At prayer time she would dress in her best clothes as if readying herself for someone special, and would become oblivious to everything around her as soon she started praying.After a brief question and answer session, I asked her what prompted her to accept Islam. She sighed and started explaining; "I was a Jew and my husband was a Christian who was posted in Saudi Arabia for some technical work. Everyday I used to see Muslim men and women dressed in white on their way somewhere. I asked my husband where they were going and he told me that they go to perform pilgrimage at the Muslim shrine of Kaa'ba. I expressed a desire to go but he told me that non-Muslims were not allowed. However, I was determined and so we both bought white clothes and set out. Fortunately no one stopped us and we reached Makkah, from where we found directions to the Kaa'ba. Upon seeing the Kaa'ba our eyes froze and time seemed to stand still. When we turned to look at each other after some time, we were both crying. With our eyes we told each other that this was the Truth and we should accept Islam. No one ever told me about Islam, but there were so many blessings descending on that House that they changed my life forever."The blessings of Tawhid descend in Makkah, and the blessings of Prophethood descend in Madinah. One has seen nothing in life if he has not seen these two holy sites. May Allah give all Muslims the opportunity to visit to His House.

The Carpenter

A highly skilled carpenter who had grown old was ready to retire. He told his employer-contractor of his plans to leave the house building business and live a more leisurely life with his family. He would miss the paycheck, but he needed to retire.The employer was sorry to see his good worker go and asked if he could build just one more house as a personal favor. The carpenter agreed to this proposal but made sure that this will be his last project. Being in a mood to retire, the carpenter was not paying much attention to building this house. His heart was not in his work. He resorted to poor workmanship and used inferior materials. It was an unfortunate way to end his career.When the job was done, the carpenter called his employer and showed him the house. The employer handed over some papers and the front door key to the carpenter and said "This is your house, my gift to you."The carpenter was in a shock! What a shame! If he had only known that he was building his own house, he would have made it better than any other house that he ever built! Our situation can be compared to this carpenter. Allah Ta'la has sent us to this world to build our homes in paradise by obeying His commands. Now, we have to decide how well we wish to build the homes where we will live forever.

How to Increase our Iman

Recite and ponder on the meanings of the Quran. Tranquility then descends and our hearts become soft. To get optimum benefit, remind yourself that Allah is speaking to you. People are described in different categories in the Quran; think of which one you find yourself in.
Realize the greatness of Allah. Everything is under His control. There are signs in everything we see that points us to His greatness. Everything happens according to His permission. Allah keeps track and looks after everything, even a black ant on a black rock on a black moonless night.
Make an effort to gain knowledge, for at least the basic things in daily life e.g. how to make wudu properly. Know the meanings behind Allah's names and attributes. People who have taqwa are those who have knowledge.
Attend gatherings where Allah is remembered. In such gatherings we are surrounded by angels.
We have to increase our good deeds. One good deed leads to another good deed. Allah will make the way easy for someone who gives charity and also make it easy for him or her to do good deeds. Good deeds must be done continuously, not in spurts.
We must fear the miserable end to our lives; the remembrance of death is the destroyer of pleasures.
Remember the different levels of akhirah, for instance when we are put in our graves, when we are judged, whether we will be in paradise or hell.
Make dua, realize that we need Allah. Be humble. Don't covet material things in this life.
Our love for Subhana Wa Ta'Ala must be shown in actions. We must hope Allah will accept our prayers, and be in constant fear that we do wrong. At night before going to sleep, we must think about what good we did during that day.
Realize the effects of sins and disobedience- one's faith is increased with good deeds and our faith is decreased by bad deeds. Everything that happens is because Allah wanted it. When calamity befalls us- it is also from Allah. It is a direct result of our disobedience to Allah.

Signs of weak Iman

Committing sins and not feeling any guilt.
Having a hard heart and no desire to read the Quran.
Feeling too lazy to do good deeds, e.g. being late for salat
Neglecting the Sunnah.
Having mood swings, for instance being upset about petty things and bothered and irritated most of the time.
Not feeling anything when hearing verses from the Quran, for example when Allah warns us of punishments and His promise of glad tidings.
Finding difficulty in remembering Allah and making dhikr.
Not feeling bad when things are done against the Shariah.
Desiring status and wealth.
Being mean and miserly, i.e. not wanting to part with wealth.
Ordering others to do good deeds when not practising them ourselves.
Feeling pleased when things are not progressing for others.
Being concerned with whether something is haram or halal only; and not avoiding makroo (not recommended) things.
Making fun of people who do simple good deeds, like cleaning the mosque.
Not feeling concerned about the situation of Muslims.
Not feeling the responsibility to do something to promote Islam.
Liking to argue just for the sake of arguing without any proof.
Becoming engrossed and very involved with dunya, worldly things, i.e. feeling bad only when losing something in terms of material wealth.
Becoming engrossed and obsessive about ourselves.

To find out how to increase weak iman, please click here.

Friday, August 15, 2008

Dua of Sheikh Muhammad Al Muhaisany



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An important note: The Dua wasn't made in Masjid al-Haram. Muhammad al-Muhaisany used to lead Salah in one of the mosques in the outskirts of Makkah.

Are we waging a war against Allah?

Sahih al-Bukhari
Volume 4
Hadith Number 28

Narrated Abu Huraira
The Prophet said, "Avoid the seven great destructive sins." The people enquire, "O Allah's Apostle! What are they? "He said, "To join others in worship along with Allah, to practice sorcery, to kill the life which Allah has forbidden except for a just cause, (according to Islamic law), to eat up riba (usury), to eat up an orphan's wealth, to give back to the enemy and fleeing from the battlefield at the time of fighting, and to accuse chaste women, who never even think of anything touching chastity and are good believers.

Allah has told us that taking usury/riba is almost as if waging a war against Him. However, most of us care very little about it and say that we cannot avoid it and no country can develop without it. However, it should be noted that riba was introduced in the political system in the late 18th century. Before that countries were developing without riba. Therefore, we are in theory waging a war against Allah and that is why Allah has created so many difficulties in the political system. He is fighting back.

Therefore, it is better for us to keep our money with us rather than giving it to banks who pratice riba. However, Allah has made it easier for us that he has allowed many haram things if it is very essential for us. For example, if we do not have any other food except pork and we are starving, we have a choice to eat the pork to keep us alive.

Sunan Abu Dawud
Hadith Number 2053

Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas
The verse "The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His Apostle, and strive with might and main for mischief
through the land is execution, or crucifixion, or the cutting off of hands and feet from opposite side or exile from the land...most
merciful" was revealed about polytheists. If any of them repents before they are arrested, it does not prevent from inflicting on him
the prescribed punishment which he deserves.

Special Feature for Non-Muslims

I have added a page to my blog. It is called the Non-Muslims section. Even though it is under construction it aims to spread Islam among the Non-Muslims and try to convince them that Islam is the best way of life.

Friday, August 8, 2008

Description of the Prophet Muhammad (S)'s appearance


Transmitted from Ali [son-in-law of the Prophet], may God be pleased with him, who, when asked to describe the Prophet, peace be upon him, would say: He was not too tall nor too short. He was medium sized. His hair was not short and curly, nor was it lank, but in between. His face was not narrow, nor was it fully round, but there was a roundness to it. His skin was white. His eyes were black. He had long eyelashes. He was big-boned and had wide shoulders. He had no body hair except in the middle of his chest. He had thick hands and feet. When he walked, he walked inclined, as if descending a slope. When he looked at someone, he looked at them in full face.
Between his shoulders was the seal of prophecy, the sign that he was the last of the prophets. He was the most generous-hearted of men, the most truthful of them in speech, the most mild-tempered of them, and the noblest of them in lineage. Whoever saw him unexpectedly was in awe of him. And whoever associated with him familiarly, loved him. Anyone who would describe him would say, I never saw, before him or after him, the like of him. Peace be upon him.


Hilal related to us, from Ata Bin Yasar. He said: “I met Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Al-As, and I said, ‘Tell me about the description of the Prophet of God, peace be upon him.’”
He said, “Yes, certainly. By God, he was described in the Torah3 in some ways as in the Quran, ‘O Prophet, we have sent you as a witness, a bringer of good tidings, and a warner’ and as a protector of the weak. You are my servant and prophet. I have named you The One Who Relies.
“He was not crude, nor was he coarse, nor was he one to shout and make a lot of noise in the marketplace. He did not answer an evil deed with another, but he would pardon and forgive. He would not be taken by God until he had straightened out the crooked people, until they would confess there was no divinity but God, and open blind eyes and deaf ears and closed hearts. O God, grant mercy and peace to our master Muhammad and his family.”

About the Prophet Muhammad (S)

Al-Hasan, son of Ali [May God be pleased with both of them] said: “I asked my uncle Hind, son of Abu Hala about the hilye [description] of the Prophet of God, my peace and blessings be upon him. Hind was known to be a prolific describer of the Prophet, and I wished him to relate some of it for me so I might hold fast to it.”
So Hind said: “The Prophet of God, peace be upon him, was of mighty significance to God, and profoundly honored among the people. His face radiated light like the moon on its fullest night. He was a bit taller than the medium stature and a bit shorter than the tall and skinny. His head was large. His hair was wavy. If his hair parted, he would leave it parted, if not he would leave it, and it would not be long enough to pass his earlobes. His complexion was fair. He had a wide forehead, arched, thick eyebrows with a space between them. There was a vein between them that would swell and pulse when he was angry. His nose was aquiline; it had a brightness about the upper part that led those who were less observant to think him haughty. He had a thick beard. His eyes were very black and the whites very white. His cheeks were not prominent, he had a wide mouth. His teeth were white and there was a space between his front teeth.
“There was a fine line of hair on his chest, and it was as if it were an ivory statue with the purity of silver. His figure was well proportioned, full bodied and strong. There was no slackness in his musculature, his chest didn’t protrude over his belly, nor the reverse. His chest was broad and his shoulders wide and muscular. He had large limbs. The parts of his body that could be seen while he was clothed were luminous. His body from the neck to the navel was joined by hair which flowed down like a line. There was no hair on his nipples. His forearms, shoulders, and upper chest were hairy. The bones of his forearms were long. His palms were wide and generous. His hands and feet were thick. His limbs were long. He had long sinews. His insteps were high. His feet were smooth without protuberances and water would run off of them. When he would move off, he would move with determination. He would step surely and unhurriedly and not proudly. He walked gently and with dignity, and he would take wide steps when he wanted to walk quickly. When he walked, it was as if he were descending from a slope and when he would look at someone, he would turn to him fully. He would lower his gaze and look down more often than up. He didn’t stare. He would lead his companions by walking behind them out of modesty and would always be the first to greet them.”
At this point, Al-Hasan said to Hind, “Describe to me the way he spoke.”
Hind said, “The Prophet of God, peace and blessings be upon him, was continually full of concern. He was constantly deep in thought. He had no rest, and would not speak without a reason. He would be silent for long periods of time. He would begin conversations, and end them clearly and distinctly and would speak in a way that combined many meanings in few words. He spoke with excellence, and there was no excess in it, nor unnatural brevity. He was gentle by nature and not coarse, nor was he contemptuous of anyone. He would extol the favors he received, even when they were few and small. He never found fault with them. He never criticized the food or drink that was prepared for him, nor did he overly praise it. No one would stand against his anger when matters of the Lord’s truth were opposed, until he had triumphed, but he would never get angry for his own sake, nor would he ever seek to win such an argument. He would gesture with his whole palm, to point. When he was astonished, he would make his palm face upwards. He used his hands frequently as he spoke, and would strike his left palm with his right thumb. When he would get angry, he would turn away and avert his gaze, and when he was full of joy he would lower his eyes. Most of his laughing was as smiling; when he did laugh, it was not loud, and he would show his teeth a bit like they were hailstones.”
Al-Hasan said, “I kept this report to myself, away from [my brother] Al-Husayn for awhile, then I told it to him, but he had already heard it and found out even more. He had asked our father [Ali] about the way the Prophet of God, peace be upon him, was at home, when he went out in his assemblies, and about his way of living.” Al-Hasan left nothing of this out.
Al-Husayn said, “I asked my father [Ali], may God be pleased with him, about how the Prophet of God, peace be upon him, was at home.”
He [Ali] said, “He always asked permission to enter his home, from God, and those within. When at home, he would divide his time into three parts, one for God, one for his family, and one for himself. Then he would divide his own portion between himself and the people. His elite companions would mostly share this time with him, and they would convey his words to the common people. He would hold nothing back from them, neither knowledge or worldly things. It was his way to prefer the people of excellence, according to their merit in religious matters. Among the people there were those with a need, those with two needs, and those with many needs. He would work with them, and he would occupy them and the community in general with that which would improve their situations. This he would do by asking about them and their needs, and informing them what they ought to do. He would say, ‘Let the one who is present among you inform the one who is absent, and bring to me the need of he who is unable to tell me himself. Truly, the one who informs a person of authority of the need of one who is unable to convey it himself, God will make firm his feet on the day of judgment.’ This was the kind of topic mentioned in his presence, and he didn’t accept anything else from anyone [he didn’t like meaningless conversation and liked to talk about how to help people].”
Ali then said, in the hadith of Sufyan Ibn Waki: “They would come as scouts [seeking decisions or knowledge], and they would not go on their way until they had found what they sought, and then they would leave as guides and learned people.”
I said [Husayn to his father Ali], “Tell me about his going out and how he acted outside.”
Ali said, “The Prophet of God, peace and blessings upon him, would hold his tongue except in matters which concerned his companions. He would encourage affection and concord between them and would say nothing to alienate one from another. He honored the nobles of every people who would come to him and make them their leaders. He would be wary around some people and on his guard against them [especially nomads], but he would never withhold from anyone his open-faced friendliness and fine personality. He would ask his companions about their situations, and he would ask people about what was going on amongst them. He would approve of that which was good and advocate it, and he would denounce that which was base and discourage it.
“Everything he did was in moderation, without excess or contrariness. He was not thoughtless, out of fear that those who came to him would become unmindful or weary. He was prepared for every situation in this world and the next. He didn’t fail to fulfill what was right, and he didn’t overstep his authority in regards to those near him. The most meritorious and excellent people to him were those whose advice was most universal; the most significant of them to him were those most beneficial to others, and the most helpful in helping others bear their burdens.”
Then Al-Husayn said, “Then I asked him [Ali] about his gatherings and about what he did in them, and he said: “The Prophet of God, peace be upon him, did not sit down or stand up without mentioning God, nor did he reserve for himself fixed places among the people to be seated, and he forbade others also to reserve places for themselves [especially in mosques and public gatherings]. When he would go to visit a group, he would sit in the nearest available spot, and ordered that others follow this practice. He would give those seated near him his full share of attention in such a way that no one would think others had been given precedence over him. Whenever someone he would be sitting with would tell him of his needs, he would bear with that person until that person left him. When someone would ask him to solve a problem, he would not turn him away without solving it for him, if possible, or saying a comforting word or a prayer for its fulfillment. His cheerfulness and open personality were felt by all the people, and he became like a father to them. They came to have the right of mercy and compassion from him, as they were close, like the relation of parent and child, distinguished only by virtue and devotion to God. And in another narrative, they became equals regarding their rights in his eyes.
“Assemblies with him were gatherings of gentleness, dignified conduct, modesty, patience, and trust. No voice would be raised, nor would women be spoken of in a depraved way, nor would peoples’ errors be mentioned. [This last item comes via different narrations.] They inclined to each other in affection out of devotion to God, as humble people. In these gatherings, the old were honored, the young were treated with gentleness. They would come to the aid of the needy and would have compassion for the stranger.”
And then I asked him [Ali] about the Messenger’s conduct among his close associates and servants.
[Ali] said: “The Prophet of God, peace be upon him, was unfailingly cheerful, easy going by nature, and mild mannered. He was neither crude nor coarse . He was not a clamorous loudmouth, nor a repeater of obscenities. He was not one to find faults in others, nor did he overly praise them either. He was unconcerned about what he did not want, and this did not bother him. He allowed his soul no portion of three things – hypocrisy, acquisitiveness, and that which did not concern him. He did not allow himself to engage in three things regarding people – he would not criticize others, he would not revile anyone, and he would not seek out others’ faults. He would speak of nothing unless he hoped a reward from God for it. When he would talk, the ones sitting with him would be so still and quiet, you would imagine birds were sitting on their heads. When he was silent, they would talk, but not quarrel in his presence. When one of them would talk, they would all listen attentively until he had finished. They would speak about a subject that was brought up by the first to speak until they had finished with it. He would laugh at what they laughed at, and he would be amazed by what amazed them. He was patient with the stranger who had roughness in his speech. He would say, ‘Whenever you see someone seeking to solve a problem, help him out.’ He did not seek praise, except to be spoken of appropriately. He wouldn’t interrupt another’s speech unless it got excessive or too long, then he would end it or get up to leave.”
Here ends the hadith of Sufyan IbnWaki. Through other narrators, Al-Hasan continues in the words of his brother Al-Husayn. I said [to Ali], “What was the silence of the Prophet of God [peace upon him] like?”
He said, “His silences were for four situations: forbearance, caution, estimation, and contemplation. As for his estimation, it was to take an impartial study of events and listen to the people in order to be just. As for his contemplation, it was about what was eternal and what was transitory. His forbearance was part of his patience, he was not angered by that which was provocative. His caution was for four reasons – taking good speech or action into consideration so he might use it in an exemplary way; abjuring the ugly and bad so it would be left alone; exerting his judgment to improve the situation of his community; [and] establishing ways to maintain the good order of his community in regard to this world and the next.”

Wednesday, August 6, 2008

IMAM AHMAD IBN MUHAMMAD HAMBAL (ra)

Abu Abdullah Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Hambal Shaibani Al-Maruzi was of pure Arab descent whose ancestery joins Hazrat Ebrahim (as). He was born in Baghdad in the month of Rabi-ul-Awwal, 164 A.H. He lost his father when he was only three years old. Baghdad being the Capital of the Muslim State was an important centre of learning during the Banu Abbas Era. Imam Ahmad Hambal (ra) completed Hifz of the Qur'an at an early age. In 180 A.H., when he was 16 years old, he began to persue the knowledge of Ahadith under the Imam Abu Yusuf (the most important pupil of Imam Abu Hanifa (ra)). He stayed with him for 3 years, during which time he recorded so much information, that the volumes filled 3 book shelves. Later he also attended the classes of Imam Muhammad (another prominent pupil of Imam Abu Hanifa (ra)). After accumlating knowledge from numerous scholars in Baghdad, he journeyed to Kufa, Basra, Makka, Madina, Yemen, Syria, Jazira in order to increase his knowledge of Ahadith. After meeting with over a hundred Shaikhs, he is reputed to have made a collection of over a million Ahadith. It was in 187 A.H. that he met Imam Shafi'ee (ra) in Makka for the first time. Later when Imam Shafi'ee came to Baghdad, Imam Hambal also joined him during the Imam's residence here and mastered from him Fiqah.

Imam Shafi'ee (ra) too on the other hand relied very much on the knowledge of Ahadith and Sunnah which Imam Ahmad Hambal (ra) possessed. It was in 204 A.H., only after he had reached the age of 40, that Imam Ahmad Hambal (ra) started conducting lessons and delivering lectures. Being a prominent figure, his lectures attracted a huge gathering of at least 5,000 students among whom nearly 500 took down notes daily. Imam Bukhari, Imam Muslim, and Imam Tirmizi (ra) were also amongst his noteworthy students. The Mu'tazila controversy regarding the "immortality and creation of the Qur'an" was the cause of much trial in the life of the Imam, who suffered much over a period of nearly 15 years. The Banu Abbas rulers - Al-Ma'moon and Al-Mu'tasim who were influenced by the Mu'tazila - tried to force the Ulama to accept the Mu'tazila doctrine. Being a devotee of the Sunnah, and an opposer of Bid'at it fell upon the shoulders of Imam Hambal (ra) to oppose this doctrine vigorously. Al-Mu'tasim even ordered the flogging and imprisonment of the Imam for several months.
Imam Hambal succumbed to the sufferings rather than deviate from the beliefs and practices of the Sunnah.


The sufferings of Imam Hambal ended when Al-Mutawakkil took over as ruler, restored the traditional teachings of Islam and accorded the Imam the honour befitting the great scholar.
Among his several works is the Encyclopaedia of Ahadith called Masnad, compiled by his son Abdulla from his lectures, and amplified by references to over 28,000 Ahadith. His other important works include a collection of his fatwas (Islamic rulings on religious matters) - covering over 20 volumes.

These fatwas form the basis of the Hambali School of Thought.
The Hambalis represent the smallest group in the four Sunni Schools of Fiqah.Imam Hambal (ra) died after a short illness in Baghdad, on Friday evening, 12 Rabi-ul-Awwal, 241 A.H. (855 A.C.) at the age of 77 years.

His Janaza Salaat was attended by nearly 1,000,000 people who came to pay their respects to this great scholar of Islam.

IMAM SHAFI'EE (ra)

Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Idrees Shafi'ee (ra) was a descendant from the Quraish tribe.
He is the Only Imam who is related to Rasulullah (saw).

Imam Shafi'ee (RAH) was born in Ghazza, Syria in 150 A.H. (765 A.C.)

He lost his father during infancy and was raised by his mother under very poor circumstances.
He completed Hifz of the Qur'an at the tender age of 7 years, and at the age of 13 memorized the Kitabul-Muatta of Imam Malik (ra).
He spent some time among the Beduins outside Makka, to acquire a good knowledge of the Arabic language. At the age of 20, (170 A.H./785 A.C.) he went to Madina and became a student of Imam Malik (ra) who was greatly impressed with the young student who had memorized the Muatta. He stayed with Imam Malik for some time; thereafter he returned to Makka. He also came into contact with other learned men (81 Shaikhs) from all of whom he acquired the knowledge of the Qur'an, Hadith and Sunnah. In 184 A.H./799 A.C., Imam Shafi'ee was arrested and taken to Baghdad to appear before Haroon Ar-Rasheed on "trumped up" charges of treason. It was due to the recommendation of Imam Muhammad (the state Qazi and student of Imam Abu Hanifa) that Imam Shafi'ee was discharged. He was then 34 years old. Imam Shafi'ee remained in Baghdad as a student of Imam Muhammad for over three years to add further to his knowledge of Islamic Law.

He returned to Makka where he stayed for 9 years delivering lectures on Islamic Law. It was during this period that Imam Ahmad ibn Hambal came into contact with Imam Shafi'ee. In 199 A.H., he went to Egypt where he was received with much honour and respect. He remained here until his death. Imam Shafi'ee was the author of over 100 books, the most important of which is the Kitab-ul-Umm. It contains the rulings of the Imam on all subjects of Islamic Law. He left behind a large number of dedicated students in Makka, Baghdad and Egypt. The Shafi'ee School of Thought emerged from these students who propagated the views and rulings of the Imam through their writings and preachings. Imam Shafi'ee (ra) never committed a major sin nor spoke a lie, nor did he swallow an unlawful morsel of food in his entire life.

He never at any time performed Jumma without Ghusal.
He was an extremely generous personality who on numerous occasions gave away all he possessed to the poor and needy. He died in Cairo, Egypt, on Friday evening after Maghrib, 29th Rajab, 204 A.H. (20th Jan, 820 A.C.) after a short illness, at the age of 53-54 years.

IMAM SHAFI'EE (ra) - ADDITIONAL FACTS
Abu Abdulla Muhammad ibn Idris ibn Al-Abbas bin Usman bin Shafi'. His ancestry joins the Prophet at Abd Manaaf. His title is 'Naasirun Sunnah'. He was honoured as Al-Imaamul Mujaddid in that he is the Mujaddid of the 2nd century. His birth place is Ghazza/Asqalaan - a place two stages from Jeruselam. He was born in Rajab 150 A.H. He was two years old when his parents moved to Makka and made it their home. His mother was a Yemeni of the famous Bani Azd tribe. His ancestor - Shafi'- was the flag bearer of the Banu Hashim in Badr.
He was taken prisoner and released after ransom. Thereafter he embraced Islam. Another report states that he met the Prophet (saw) as a youngster and became a Muslim. However his father - Saa'ib - was the flag bearer.....


Imam Shafi'ee completed Hifz at 7 and memorised Muatta at 10 years.
At 15 with the permission of his SHAIKH - Muslim bin Khalid Zanji (the Mufti of Makka) - he started issuing fatwas. Earlier he spent his time in Arabic literature and poetry. One day at Mina, he heard a voice behind saying: "Aliaka bil Fiqah" - (GRASP THE FIQAH). Muslim bin Khalid who had noticed his remarkable intelligence, etc., advised him to study Fiqah. He spent three years with the Shaikh, until the age of 13. Later he went to Madina to study under Imam Malik.
Besides Imam Malik, he studied Hadith under 81 Shaikhs.
In Makka his tutor was Sufyan bin Ainiyyah. Imam Shafi'ee said about these two: "Had it not been for Imam Malik and Sufyan, then Ilm Would not have remained in Hidjaz."

He spent 8 months with Imam Malik, then returned to Makka.
He came into contact in 184 A.H. with Imam Muhammad - state Qazi - at Baghdad and stayed with him for over 3 years. Taking into account future visits to the Imam, he spent 10 years with Imam Muhammad. Comments: "I never came across a greater Alim of Kitabullah than Imam Muhammad (ra).
Imam Muhammad made this comment: [a] The door of Fiqah was shut to the people, Allah opened it because of Shafi'ee.
[b] Imam Shafi'ee is the Mujaddid of Deen.
Imam Malik made this comment: No Scholar more brilliant than Muhammad ibn Idris Shafi'ee ever came to me as a pupil.

Fiqah Shafi'ee
The Imam had mastered both Maliki and Hanafi Fiqah. Keeping both before him, he formulated the basis of the Shafi'ee Fiqah.
His pupils compiled his works, Fatwas, teachings, etc., and promoted the Shafi'ee School of Fiqah.

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